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Full text of "Bulletin of the Natural History Museum Entomology"

ISSN 0968-0454 



Bulletin of 
The Natural History Museum 



Entomology Series 




VOLUME 64 NUMBER 1 29 JUNE 1995 



The Bulletin of The Natural History Museum (formerly: Bulletin of the British 
Museum (Natural History) ), instituted in 1949, is issued in four scientific series, 
Botany, Entomology, Geology (incorporating Mineralogy) and Zoology. 

The Entomology Series is produced under the editorship of the 

Keeper of Entomology: Dr R.P. Lane 

Editor of Bulletin: Dr P.C. Barnard 



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unique and ever-growing collections of the Museum, both by the scientific staff 
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World List abbreviation: Bull. nat. Hist. Mus. Lond. (Ent.) 

© The Natural History Museum, 1995 

Entomology Series 
ISSN 0968-0454 Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 1-115 

The Natural History Museum 

Cromwell Road 

London SW7 5BD Issued 29 June 1995 

Typeset by Ann Buchan (Typesetters), Middlesex 
Printed in Great Britain at The Alden Press, Oxford 



1 




3 # • 



$ w % 





Plate 1 Oospila species, showing range of variation within the genus. 1, 0. flavilimes; 2, O. excrescens; 3. 0. 
florepicta; 4. 0. rhodophragma; 5, 0. Camilla: 6, 0. astigma; 7, 0. fimbripedata; 8, 0. ecuadorata; 9, 0. athena; 
10, 0. includaria; 11,0. albicoma; 12, 0. ciliaria; 13, 0. lilacina; 14, 0. violacea; 15, 0. obeliscata; 16, 0. 
marginata; 17, 0. atroviridis; 18, 0. ruptimacula; 19, 0. venezuelata; 20, 0. depressa; 21, 0. nivetacta. 



Bull. rial. Hist. Mus. Lond. 64(1): 1-115 



Issued 29 June 1995 



Revision of the neotropical genus 
Oospila Warren (Lepidoptera: 
Geometridae) 

MARK A. COOK and MALCOLM J. SCOBLE 

Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, 
London SW7 5 BD 

CONTENTS 



Synopsis 1 

Introduction 1 

Taxonomic history of Oospila 2 

Monophyly of Oospila 2 

Material and Methods 2 

Abbreviations of Institutions 3 

Acknowledgements 3 

Oospila Warren, 1897 3 

Key to species groups of Oospila 7 

Check-list of the species of Oospila 7 

Species descriptions 8 

References 70 

Index to species of Oospila 115 



Synopsis. The neotropical genera Auophylla Warren, Auophyllodes Prout, Leptolopha 
Warren, Oospila Warren, Oospiloma Prout, Progonodes Warren, Racheolopha Warren, 
Rhombochlora Warren and Urucurnia Prout are united into a single genus and their 
species are taxonomically revised and described. All primary types available have been 
examined. The revised genus Oospila is a monophyletic group defined by the apomor- 
phic character of the fusion of the juxta and transtilla to form what is here termed an 
anellar complex. Seventy-four species of Oospila are treated, of which one is described 
as new. Forty-eight species-group names are synonymized and 24 species are recom- 
bined with Oospila. The adult moths are illustrated and line drawings of the genitalia are 
provided for all species. 



INTRODUCTION 



This study contributes to part of a larger research 
programme concerned with the systematics of 
neotropical Geometridae. The programme 
makes use not only of the extensive collections in 
the Natural History Museum, London, and 
selected material from other Museums, much of 
which dates back to the last century or to the 
early part of this century, but also of samples 
made within the last decade in Costa Rica and 



housed in the National Institute of Biodiversity 
in San Jose. The samples from across the neotro- 
pics have been invaluable in providing a broad 
basis for the taxonomic study presented here; the 
more intense and recent collecting within Costa 
Rica is an invaluable resource for examining 
questions about the numbers of new species 
expected when such sampling is carried out. 
Besides improving the taxonomy of selected neo- 
tropical Geometridae, the data from this study, 
and other revisions, are enabling better estimates 
of species richness to be made. 



)The Natural History Museum, 1995 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



The taxonomy of neotropical Emerald Moths 
(Geometridae: Geometrinae) has received no 
comprehensive attention since the studies of 
Prout (1912, 1932-38). Prout did not use genital 
morphology in his valuable studies, but relied on 
external characters alone. The variation in exter- 
nal characters without a corresponding study of 
genital morphology led to the creation of many 
synonyms. So, in order to understand better the 
species diversity of Geometrinae in the neotro- 
pics, and to provide a means of identifying these 
moths, revisionary work has proved essential. 
Oospila, as redefined in the present study, 
includes 74 species of Geometrinae. Pitkin 
(1993) dealt with a further 156 neotropical 
geometrine species belonging to three other gen- 
era. These two studies provide a detailed modern 
species-level treatment of a substantial propor- 
tion of the 450 described geometrine species 
estimated to occur in the neotropics. 

Taxonomic history of Oospila 

The genus Oospila was erected by Warren (1897) 
for the type species (Oospila trilunaria (Guenee), 
formerly assigned to Comibaena Hiibner, by 
Walker, 1861) and three species he described as 
new. Between 1897 and 1912, Warren described 
thirteen new species of Oospila (Warren 1900, 
1901, 1904a, 1904b, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1909); one 
species, Oospila albicoma (Felder and Rogen- 
hofer), was transferred from Racheospila Gue- 
nee, and another was described by Druce (1911). 
The genus was revised by Prout (1912) who 
included 48 species (two of them new) or subspe- 
cies in the genus. Between then and the second 
revision of the genus by Prout (1932-33), ten 
further species were added by various authors. 
Prout's second revision included 58 species and 
18 subspecies. Since 1932, the only work on the 
genus has been the description of two further 
species (Fletcher, 1951; Herbulot, 1991). 



presence of an anellar complex (see below) in the 
male, and very small anterior apophyses in the 
female. Prout (1932) suggested that these genera 
might reasonably be united into a single genus, 
but treated them as separate genera in his revi- 
sion. 

A cladistic analysis of exemplar taxa, chosen to 
cover the range of variation observed within this 
group of genera (Cook, 1993) produced three 
cladograms presenting equally valid options for 
classifying this group and for redefining Oospila. 
The analysis also demonstrated that all six genera 
form a monophyletic group defined by the pres- 
ence of an anellar complex (which is considered, 
a posteriori, as secondarily reduced in those 
species from which it is absent). Since elements 
in the wing pattern and other characters occur 
throughout these genera, all these taxa are syn- 
onymized in the present study. Further investiga- 
tion revealed the presence of an anellar complex 
in the neotropical genera Leptolopha Warren, 
Rhombochlora Warren and Urucumia Prout. 
These are also synonymized, below, with 
Oospila. 

Although in the North American genus 
Lophochorista Warren the transtillae and juxta 
are not fused to form an anellar complex, this 
genus shares two important characters with 
Oospila: strong development of the abdominal 
crests and modification of the mesal region of the 
valva in the male genitalia. Both characters occur 
elsewhere in the Geometrinae and further analy- 
sis is required before deciding whether or not 
they are synapomorphic or independently 
derived. Preliminary analysis (Cook, 1993) sug- 
gests that Lophochorista and Oospila (in the 
revised sense accepted here) may be sister taxa. 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 



Monophyly of Oospila 

Prout (1932-33) noted the similarity in external 
appearance of Oospila and the neotropical gen- 
era Auophylla Warren, Auophyllod.es Prout, 
Oospiloma Prout, Progonodes Warren and 
Racheolopha Warren. All six genera have 
strongly developed, dark brown, abdominal 
crests composed of scales raised above the level 
of the rest of the abdomen. Moreover, similar 
wing-pattern elements occur throughout these 
genera. The present study shows that the genita- 
lia also exhibit many similarities: a reduced 
uncus, gnathi free, not fused medially, and the 



All available primary types were examined. 

Permanent slide mounts (in Euparal) of the 
male and female genitalia were prepared from 
specimens covering as wide a range of the distri- 
bution of each species as possible. After macera- 
tion of the abdomen in KOH and subsequent 
cleaning, male genital capsules were removed 
from the abdomen and mounted venter upper- 
most with the inner surfaces of the valvae dis- 
played. The aedeagus was removed from the 
diaphragma and mounted on the same slide. The 
female genitalia were also removed from, and 
mounted alongside, the abdomen. Both male 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



and female genitalia are illustrated in ventral 
view. 

Wing preparations were made for each spe- 
cies. Wings were treated in a dilute solution of 
household bleach and then stained lightly with 
mercurochrome. Permanent slide preparations 
were also made in Euparal. 

Fore wing length is expressed as a range, 
measured along the costa from the wing base to 
its apex. 

Locality, collection date, collector, number 
and sex of specimens and depository were 
recorded from specimen labels. These data are 
presented here and also stored electronically at 
the BMNH. Allocation of localities to provinces 
follows Brown (1979). 

A key to species of Oospila is not included in 
this revision since it is not considered to be an 
effective means of identifying species of this large 
genus. A key to species groups is provided, but 
since most species of Oospila can be recognised 
from their wing markings alone, specimens are 
better identified initially by comparing them with 
the figures (PI. 1; Figs 1-74). Confirmation may 
then be made by referring to the species descrip- 
tions and diagnoses. 



National Museum). 
VOBB Vitor Osmar Becker collection, Planaltina, 
Brazil. 



Acknowledgements. We are grateful to Dr V.O. 
Becker (VOBB), Dr J. Clavijo (UCVM); Dr D.C. 
Ferguson (USNM); Monsieur C. Herbulot (Paris); 
Professor D.H. Janzen (University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, U.S.A.) and his associates at the Instituto 
Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), San Jose, Costa 
Rica; Dr J. Minet (MNHN); Dr J.E. Rawlins 
(CMNH); Dr F.H. Rindge (AMNH), and Dr R. 
Shouten (MDHG) for providing material for this study. 
We thank Dr J.D. Holloway (CAB INTERNA- 
TIONAL); Dr G.C. McGavin (HECO) and Mrs L.M. 
Pitkin (BMNH) for their valued advice and comments 
during the course of this work. We are further grateful 
to Mrs Pitkin for her comments on a draft of the 
manuscript, for suggesting further synonymy, and for 
examining some types and other key specimens on our 
behalf in the USNM and INBio. The colour and black 
and white plates were taken by Mr H. Taylor (BMNH). 
We thank the Trustees of The Natural History Museum 
for facilities, and for the award of a postgraduate 
studentship to MAC. 



ABBREVIATIONS OF 
INSTITUTIONS 



AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, U.S.A. 

BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, 
U.K. (formerly British Museum (Natural 
History)). 

CMNH Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pitts- 
burgh, U.S.A. 

CVCJ Charles Van Orden Covell, Jr., collection, 
U.S.A. 

HECO Hope Entomological Collections, University 
Museum, Oxford, U.K. 

HERB Collection of Monsieur C Herbulot, Paris, 
France. 

INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, San 
Jose, Costa Rica. 

MDHG Museon Den Haag, Netherlands. 

MNHN Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris, France. 

MNHU Museum fur Naturkunde der Humboldt- 
Universitat, Berlin, Germany. 

MNRJ Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

UCVM Universidad Central de Venezuela, Mara- 
cay, Venezuela. 

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Wash- 
ington D.C, U.S.A. (formerly United States 



OOSPILA WARREN, 1897 

Oospila Warren, 1897: 426. Type-species: 
Phorodesma trilunaria Guenee, 1857: 372, by 
original designation. 

Auophylla Warren, 1897: 423. Type-species: 
Thalera includaria Herrich-Schaffer [1855] 
1850-1858: pi. 61, fig. 341, by original designa- 
tion. Syn.n. 

Progonodes Warren, 1897: 429. Type-species: 
Racheospila stagonata Felder & Rogenhofer, 
1875: pi. 127, fig. 25, by original designation. 
Syn.n. 

Drucia Warren, 1900: 133. Type-species: Drucia 
delphinata Warren, 1900: 133, by original des- 
ignation. Synonymized by Prout, 1912: 132. 

Racheolopha Warren, 1900: 137. Type-species: 
Racheospila miccularia Guenee, 1857: 374, by 
original designation. Syn.n. 

[Anophylla Warren, 1906: 414. Incorrect subse- 
quent spelling of Auophylla Warren.] 

Halioscia Warren, 1907: 202. Type-species: 
Halioscia atroviridis Warren, 1904a: 24, by 
subsequent designation by Fletcher, 1979: 95. 
Synonymized by Prout, 1912: 132. 

Leptolopha Warren, 1909: 78. Type-species: Lis- 
sochlora flavilimes Warren, by original desig- 
nation. Syn.n. 

Rhombochlora Warren, 1909: 89. Type-species: 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Rhombochlora granulata Warren, by original 
designation. Syn.n. 

Auophyllodes Prout, 1912: 20 (key), 130. Type- 
species: Comibaena venezuelata Walker, 1861: 
570, by original designation. Syn.n. 

Oospiloma Prout, 1916: 170. Type-species: 
Oospila thalassina Warren, 1905: 318, by origi- 
nal designation. Syn.n. 

Urucumia Prout, 1933: 71. Type-species: Uru- 
cumia acymanta Prout, 1933: 71, by original 
designation. Syn.n. 

General appearance (PI. 1) 

Oospila species are slender-bodied Geometri- 
nae. Their wings are typically dark green and 
patterned with creamy blotches. 

Head 

Vestiture of frons brown, occasionally green. 
Vestiture of vertex brown dorsally, cream ven- 
trally, or sometimes entirely green. Interanten- 
nal fillet (i.e. vestiture between antennal bases) 
usually white, less commonly, brown. Chaetose- 
mata small; external ocelli absent; compound 
eyes large, round. Antennae of both sexes bipec- 
tinate for basal 2/3, simple towards apex; simple 
along entire length in females of some species. 
Where present, rami usually approximately same 
length in both sexes. Labial palpi brown dorsally, 
cream ventrally; segment 3 usually short in male 
and longer in female. Maxillary palpi very short 
and 1-segmented; proboscis well developed, 
unsealed. 

Thorax 

Vestiture of thorax and patagia concolorous with 
ground colour of wings; typically dark green, in 
some species pale green, dark brown, reddish- 
brown, cream or white. 

Vestiture of fore leg brown on anterior sur- 
face, cream on lateral and posterior surfaces. 
Fore tibia bearing an epiphysis. Tibial spur for- 
mula 0-2-2 except for thalassina group {0-2-4). 
Hind tibia of some males with a recessed brush of 
long hair-like scales. 

Wings never reduced in size; approximately 
triangular in most species. Hind wing of some 
species with short extension at distal end of vein 
M 3 ; extension usually marked by tuft of long 
scales projecting beyond fringe (e.g. as in 
asmura, Fig. 17). Fore wing length (i.e. length of 
costa from base to apex): range 7-26 mm. Some 
species with wings slightly larger in female than 
in male. Frenulum a well developed spine in 



male hind wing (absent from acymanta); absent 
from female. Ground colour of wings dark or 
pale green, but very pale blue-green in ciliaria 
(PI. 1: 12), and yellow in subaurea. 

Fore wing: costal edge usually pale brown, 
occasionally dark brown or white; discal spot 
typically small and brown, sometimes enlarged 
(e.g. as in altonaria, Fig. 46 and obeliscata, PI. 1: 
15 and Fig. 53). Markings white, cream, brown, 
reddish-brown or black (PI. 1), often taking form 
of blotches situated at or near apex and tornus; 
blotches largely separate, but frequently con- 
nected by narrow band along termen, or repre- 
sented by indistinct band along termen (e.g. as in 
pellucida, Fig. 68). Fore wing speckled in some 
species (e.g. semispurcata, Fig. 12), or with more 
complex pattern (e.g. as in obeliscata, PI. 1: 15 
and Fig. 53). 

Hind wing: markings usually similar to fore 
wing; sometimes (e.g. albicoma albicoma, PI. 1: 
11, Fig. 39) with small, narrow blotch at anal 
margin in addition to blotches at apex and tor- 
nus; one or two discal spots generally present, 
usually small and brown or white, but may be 
modified as in fore wing. 

Venation (Figs 75, 76): fairly constant 
throughout genus, with minor inter- and intra- 
specific variation. Fore wing: vein R 1 diverges at 
apex of discal cell (Fig. 75), except in astigma 
group and miccularia group where it diverges 
distal to M x (Fig. 76). Accessory cells absent. 
Vein R 2 diverging proximal to R 5 , except in 
venezuelata. Vein M x diverging from Rs distal to 
discal cell. Cross- vein M 2 -M 3 often weaker (but 
not in those species illustrated, Figs 75, 76) than 
cross-vein Mj-M 2 and sometimes discontinuous 
at its centre. Hind wing (Figs 75, 76): vein M 2 
arising nearer M t than M 2 ; cross-vein M 2 -M 3 
either continuous with cross-vein Mj-M 2 (e.g. 
delacruzi, Fig. 76) or displaced distally (e.g. 
marginata, Fig. 75). Vein 3A absent. 

Abdomen 

Dorsal surface of abdomen bearing large, distinc- 
tive crests on terga A2-A5 (see, for example, PI. 
1); smaller, paler crests on terga A6 and A7 
(reduced or absent in species with smaller abdo- 
mens). Crests dark brown with white centres, in 
most species, but cream, often with brown flecks, 
in flavilimes group. Crests of most species com- 
posed of broad scales with a central brush of 
longer, thinner, hair-like scales. Rest of dorsal 
surface typically cream (PI. 1), in some species 
green, brown (PI. 1) or patterned. Crests in some 
species surrounded by white area sometimes 
enclosed by a thin, pink line. Ventral and lateral 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



surfaces of abdomen cream-coloured. 

Tympanal organs: ansa narrow just above 
base, widening to form broad flat plate then 
narrowing towards apex. Tympanic laciniae 
absent; lobe of tympanic bulla absent. 

Pregenital abdomen of female lacking species- 
specific structures with all segments simple. Ster- 
num A2 of male frequently modified and 
sternum A8 usually modified (Fig. 77); posterior 
edge of sternum A2 in males of some species 
slightly emarginated (Fig. 77) with small, ellipti- 
cal sclerite occurring in intersegmental mem- 
brane of sterna A2 and A3. Where elliptical 
sclerite present, sternum A2 also bearing two 
brushes of long hair-scales meeting over sclerite. 
Sternum A8 of most species strongly sclerotized, 
often enlarged, and typically with posterior edge 
either emarginated or with a bifurcate extension. 

Male genitalia (Figs 78-145). Uncus usually 
short, sometimes reduced to narrow bar; long in 
quinquemaculata and thalassina groups (e.g. Fig. 
84). Socii membranous, usually quite large, 
sometimes reduced. Gnathos usually prominent, 
consisting of two large, strongly sclerotized horn- 
like processes, broadest at base and tapering 
towards apex; gnathi lying across uncus, often 
meeting along midline (e.g. Fig. 78) (displaced in 
most illustrations to display uncus); gnathos a 
completely fused ring in quinquemaculata and 
thalassina groups (Figs 84-92); reduced in a few 
species (e.g. pallidaria. Fig. 81) or greatly 
enlarged (e.g. decorata. Fig. 79). Tegumen vary- 
ing in breadth, sometimes strengthened by an 
X-shaped sclerotized brace (e.g. excrescens. Fig. 
86). Valva with apex rounded or sculpted, some- 
times divided by a cleft, sometimes with small 
spines at apex (e.g. albipunctulata. Fig. 100); 
costal edge of valva more strongly sclerotized in 
some members of quinquemaculata group (e.g. 
in quinquemaculata, Fig. 84), occasionally modi- 
fied (e.g. in continuata, Fig. 85); ampulla (a 
process of mesal area of valva; Fig. 78, and see 
Klots, 1970) often prominent; shape generally 
distinctive for species; sacculus usually devel- 
oped and often extended into short, strongly 
sclerotized, and usually pointed, process (e.g. 
Figs 79, 80); saccular edge of valva usually emar- 
ginated when sacculus developed. Anellar com- 
plex (e.g. as in Fig. 78) conspicuous, typically 
surrounding aedeagus; attached to valvae by 
short extensions from its medial (e.g. O. longi- 
plaga, Fig. 137) or posterior (e.g. O. trilunaria. 
Fig. 117) regions; sometimes anellar complex not 
attached to valva, but held in position by mem- 
branous part of diaphragma (e.g. O. albicoma 
albicoma. Fig. 113); anellar complex sometimes 



secondarily reduced (e.g. in florepicta. Fig. 87), 
often to V-shaped sclerite, which is fused with 
the valva posteriorly. Coremata usually absent, 
but present in quinquemaculata group and arising 
from base of each valva (e.g. Fig. 84). Aedeagus 
usually long, narrow and cylindrical; small cornu- 
tus occurring on vesica of many species (e.g. in 
nigripunctata, Fig. 80); additional cornuti, or 
other modifications, occasionally present (e.g. 
astigma, Fig. 97). 

Female genitalia (Figs 146-199). Anterior 
apophyses reduced to exceptionally short projec- 
tions (e.g. Fig. 146). Sterigma usually strongly 
sclerotized and variously modified; presence and 
shape often diagnostic at species level. Bursa 
copulatrix (e.g. Fig. 146): ductus bursae typically 
consisting of long, relatively narrow duct, leading 
into enlarged, membranous, corpus bursae; 
antrum sometimes funnel-shaped (Fig. 153); duc- 
tus usually long and strongly sclerotized anterior 
to antrum, and bearing longitudinal striations 
(e.g. decoloraria. Fig. 189); corpus bursae a 
membranous sac, either approximately spherical 
or bulbous and varying in size between species; 
denticles on internal surface of corpus visible at 
200x magnification; signum usually present, 
small, in form of a narrow sclerotized band with 
tooth at each end protruding into corpus (e.g. as 
in Fig. 146) (teeth often not visible when corpus 
viewed laterally). 

Comments on morphology 

1. As with all Geometrinae, the wing colours of 
Oospila are prone to fading (e.g. Cook et al., 
1993). Old specimens are usually paler green 
than fresh material and, in some cases (par- 
ticularly in specimens of violacea, PI. 1: 14), 
may fade to pale yellow. The potential for 
colour change should be remembered when 
identifying material not recently collected. 

2. It seems likely that the elliptical sclerite situ- 
ated in the intersegmental membrane of 
abdominal segments A2 and A3 is associated 
with dissemination of pheromones in some 
way. This sclerite does not seem to occur in 
other Geometrinae and it may represent an 
apomorphy of Oospila. Its distribution within 
the genus is not consistent with species groups 
suggested by other characters. 

3. The shape of sternum A8 in the male is a 
valuable character for identifying species of 
Oospila; it is diagnostic in certain species 
where other external features are indistin- 
guishable (e.g. in marginata, obsolescens and 
tricamerata) . The structure can usually be 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



inspected without dissecting the specimen. 

4. The ampulla of the valva also occurs in 
Lophochorista lesteraria Grossbeck. L. lester- 
aria is probably the sister species of the genus 
Oospila (Cook, 1993). In addition to the 
ampulla, additional processes arise from, or 
close to, the costa of the valva in some species 
(e.g. in venezuelata, Fig. 141). 

5. The term 'anellar complex' (e.g. see Fig. 78) 
is used to describe the conspicuous, diagnostic 
sclerotization of the diaphragma surrounding 
the aedeagus. This complex has probably 
arisen from the fusion of the transtillae and 
the juxta, structures occurring frequently in 
Geometrinae, but appearing to have become 
fused only in Oospila. Typically, the anellar 
complex surrounds the aedeagus. Function- 
ally, the anellar complex appears to serve as a 
support for the aedeagus. The anellar com- 
plex may be attached to the valvae by short 
extensions from its medial (e.g. O. longi- 
plaga, Fig. 137) or posterior (e.g. O. triluna- 
ria, Fig. 117) regions. These extensions are 
probably homologous with the transtillae of 
some other Geometrinae. In some species 
(e.g. O. albicoma albicoma, Fig. 113) the 
anellar complex is not attached to the valvae, 
but is held in position by a membranous part 
of the diaphragma. In certain species the 
anellar complex is secondarily reduced (e.g. 
in florepicta, Fig. 87), often to a V-shaped 
sclerite, which is fused with the valvae posteri- 
orly. 



Immature stages 

The only species for which larval data have been 
recorded (D.H. Janzen, personal communica- 
tion) is O. confundaria Moschler, in dry forest at 
300 m elevation in the Guanacaste Conservation 
Area of northwestern Costa Rica. The larva is 
light green with a slight rosy or brownish cast in a 
few individuals. It eats the expanding leaves of 
Hymenaea courbaril (Leguminosae) and is mod- 
erately common in the crowns of saplings 1-3 m 
tall when they are forming new leaves (a phe- 
nomenon occurring throughout the year). 
Mature trees of this species produce leaves only 
in December and January, but it is not known 
whether larvae are found in mature trees at this 
time of the year. Janzen (pers. comm.) has found 
mature larvae in March, May, June, August and 
December. When not feeding, the caterpillar 
holds itself motionless and straight, at an angle so 
as to look similar to a young Hymenaea twig or 
petiole (Janzen, 1988). The naked pupae are 



deposited in litter (Janzen, personal communica- 
tion). 

Distribution 

The genus occurs widely in tropical America and 
has been recorded from Mexico, Cuba, Jamaica, 
Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, 
Panama, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, 
Trinidad, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, 
Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil. 
Oospila venezuelata has been recorded from 
Mexico, which seems to be the most northerly 
limit to the distribution of this genus, and only O. 
includaria has been recorded from Argentina, 
which seems to represent the southern limit of 
the genus. 

Diagnosis 

Oospila can be distinguished from other 
Geometrinae by the composition of the abdomi- 
nal scale-crests. In the few other Geometrinae 
that have them, these crests are formed entirely 
of long hair-like scales whereas in Oospila they 
are composed of much broader scales surround- 
ing a central brush of long, thin, hair-like scales. 
The presence of the anellar complex in the male 
genitalia is also diagnostic, except in those few 
species where it has been reduced secondarily. A 
few other Geometrinae have blotches on their 
wings (e.g. Cheroscelis oospila Prout); but, with 
the exception of Chavarriella Pitkin, these spe- 
cies do not occur in the neotropics. The male 
genitalia of Chavarriella are very different from 
those of Oospila, and Chavarriella lacks the 
abdominal crests found in Oospila. 

Habitat and biology 

Oospila is restricted to tropical areas of Central 
and South America. Species have been collected 
in transitional cloud forest (e.g. at Rancho 
Grande in the Henri Pittier National Park, Ven- 
ezuela) and lowland dry forest (e.g. at Santa 
Rosa National Park, northwestern Costa Rica). 
However, most specimens examined were col- 
lected in lowland rain forest areas of continental 
South America. In the rain forest, adults of most 
species for which data are available have been 
collected in both wet and dry seasons. 

Remark 

The original descriptions of Auophylla and 
Oospila were published in the same work (War- 
ren, 1897). Although Auophylla was described 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 

three pages prior to Oospila, adopting Auophylla 
as the senior synonym would have resulted in 32 
more new combinations. To avoid this complica- 
tion, Oospila is selected (above) as the senior 
synonym, a decision in accord with the Interna- 
tional Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1985) 
(Article 24a). 

Key to species groups of Oospila 

1 Abdominal crests poorly developed and blotches 
absent from wings; wings often with pale yellow 
band along termen (7 species, Figs 1-7) 
flavilimes group 

- Crests well developed or blotches present on wings; 
wings without pale yellow band along termen ... 2 

2 Two pairs of spurs on male hind tibia (2 species, 
Figs 8-9) thalassina group 

- Single pair of spurs on male hind tibia 3 

3 R, of fore wing arising distad of the origin of M, 
(Fig. 76) 4 

- R, of fore wing arising basad of the origin of M, 

(Fig. 75) 5 

4 Field of large spines present towards the apex of the 
dorsal surface of the male valva (3 species. Figs 
105-107) miccularia group 

- Field of spines absent, or spines small (as in zama- 
radaria. Fig. 104)(8 species. Figs 97-104) . asligma 
group 

5 Hind wing with short extension at the distal end of 
M 3 , terminating in a tuft of scales (except in rosi- 
para. Fig. 19); male genitalia with transtillac large 
and outwardly curving (Figs 93-96) (5 species. Figs 
17-21) asmura group 

- Hind wing with no extension at the distal end of M,. 
transtillae of male genitalia not large, outwardly 
curving lobes 6 

6 Wings with ground colour dark green and cream 
with brown detail, cream areas not separated into 
distinct blotches (2 species. Figs 37-38) (but not 
including obeliscata. Fig. 53) includaria group 

- Wings with distinct blotches or with a speckled 
pattern 7 

7 Uncus with long apical extension, gnathos fused, 
sacculus not strongly developed, coremata present 
(except in florepicta, Fig. 87) (7 species. Figs 
84-90) quinquemaculata group 

- Uncus not extended, or gnathos not fused or saccu- 
lus strongly developed, coremata absent 8 

8 Anellar complex a flat plate (2 species. Figs 108- 
109) athena group 

- Anellar complex surrounding part of aedeagus .. 9 



7 

9 Wings with ground colour white with green mark- 
ings (2 species. Figs 35-36) . lactecincta and spora- 
data 

- Wings predominantly green, with blotches or bands 
along the termen 10 

10 Transtillae short arms, fused posteriorly with anel- 
lar complex; anellar complex long, with a short 
dorsal projection (31 species. Figs 117-145) 
trilunaria group 

- Transtillae fused with juxta, not extended into short 
arms, anellar complex without dorsal projection (5 
species, Figs 113-116) albicoma group 

Check-list of the species of Oospila 

Synonyms are indented and not emboldened. 

OOSPILA Warren 

AUOPHYLLA Warren syn.n. 
AUOPHYLLODES Prout syn.n. 
DRUCIA Warren 
HALIOSCIA Warren 
LEPTOLOPHA Warren syn.n. 
OOSP1LOMA Prout syn.n. 
PROGONODES Warren syn.n. 
RACHEOLOPHA Warren syn.n. 
RHOMBOCHLORA Warren syn.n. 
URUCUMIA Prout syn.n. 

The flavilimes group 
flavilimes (Warren) comb.n. 
decorata (Prout) comb.n. 
nigripunctata (Warren) comb.n. 
permagna (Warren) comb.n. 

[marginata (Schaus) preoccupied] 
pallidaria (Schaus) comb.n. 
subaurea (Warren) comb.n. 
acymanla (Prout) comb.n. 

The quinquemaculata group 
quinquemaculata (Warren) 

circumdata (Warren) syn.n. 

circumdata striolata Prout syn.n. 
continuant (Warren) 
excrescens (Warren) 
florepicta (Warren) 

cayennensis Herbulot syn.n. 
semispurcata (Warren) 
rhodophragma Prout 
granulata (Warren) comb.n. 

The thalassina group 
thalassina Warren 
lacteguttata (Warren) 

fenestrata (Bastelberger) syn.n. 

peralta Schaus syn.n. 

The asmura group 
asmura (Druce) 

fumidimargo (Dognin) syn.n. 

latimargo (Warren) syn.n. 
circumsessa Prout 



8 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



rosipara (Warren) 

conversa (Dognin) 

flavicincta (Warren) syn.n. 

microspila (Warren) syn.n. 
delphinata (Warren) 

heteromorpha (Warren) syn.n. 

plurimaculata (Warren) syn.n. 

plurimaculata symmicta Prout syn.n. 
Camilla Schaus 

The astigma group 
astigma (Warren) comb.n. 
leucostigma (Warren) comb.n. 
delacruzi (Dognin) 

restricta Warren syn.n. 
albipunctulata (Prout) comb.n. 
rufilimes (Warren) comb.n. 

extensata (Warren) syn.n. 
arpata (Schaus) comb.n. 

mionophragma (Prout) syn.n. 

mionophragma subruta (Prout) syn.n. 

semicaudata (Prout) syn.n. 

similiplaga (Warren) 
fimbripedata (Warren) comb.n. 
zamaradaria Fletcher 

The miccularia group 
miccularia (Guenee) comb.n. 

imula (Dognin) 

sarptaria (Moschler) syn.n. 
euchlora (Prout) comb.n. 
ecuadorata (Dognin) comb.n. 

sarptaria ruboris (Prout) syn.n. 

The athena group 
athena (Druce) comb.n. 
holochroa (Prout) comb.n. 
delicatescens (Dyar) syn.n. 

lactecincta and its relative 
lactecincta (Warren) 
sporadata (Warren) 

curvimargo Herbulot syn.n. 

The includaria group 

includaria (Herrich-Schaffer) comb.n. 

basiplaga (Warren) syn.n. 

magnifica (Schaus) syn.n. 

multiplagiata (Warren) syn.n. 
leucothalera (Prout) comb.n. 

The albicoma group 

albicoma albicoma (Felder and Rogenhofer) 

deliciosa Thierry-Mieg syn.n. 

minorata Warren 
albicoma nasuta Warren stat.n. 
concinna Warren 

albicoma matura Prout syn.n. 

eminens Schaus syn.n. 
dicraspeda Prout 
ciliaria (Hubner) 

pallida (Warren) syn.n. 

semialbaria (Guenee) 



The trilunaria group 
trilunaria (Guenee) 
carnelunata (Warren) 
altonaria Jones 
confluaria (Warren) 

mesocraspeda Prout syn.n. 
longipalpis (Warren) 
sellifera Warren 
lilac ina (Warren) 
violacea Warren 
callicula (Druce) 

callicula orchardae Prout syn.n. 

callicula stenobathra Prout syn.n. 
obeliscata (Warren) 

marginata and its relatives 
marginata Warren 

marginata sympathes Prout syn.n. 

rufiplaga Warren syn.n. 
tricamerata Prout 
obsolescens stat. n. 

atopochlora and its relatives 
atopochlora Prout 
hyalina Warren 

fractimacula Prout syn.n. 
atroviridis Warren stat.rev. 

dolens Druce syn.n. 
congener Warren 

congener procellosa (Warren) syn.n. 
immaculata sp.n. 
rubescens (Warren) 
circumsignata Prout 
decoloraria (Walker) 
jaspidata (Warren) 
longiplaga Warren 
lunicincta (Warren) 
pellucida Prout 
ruptimacula Warren 

aliphera Dognin syn.n. 

ruptimacula curtimacula Prout syn.n. 
venezuelata (Walker) comb.n. 

ambusta (Prout) 

belisama (Druce) syn.n. 

invasata (Walker) 

partita (Prout) syn.n. 

venezuelata cellata (Prout) syn.n. 
confundaria (Moschler) 

coerulea (Warren) syn.n. 

coerulea aphenges Prout syn.n. 

derasa (Warren) syn.n. 

sesquiplaga Prout syn.n. 
depressa Warren 

semiviridis Warren syn.n. 
stagonata (Felder and Rogenhofer) comb.n. 

arycanda (Druce) syn.n. 
nivetacta (Warren) comb.n. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 

Species descriptions 

The flavilimes group 

This group has pale and poorly developed 
abdominal crests and lacks blotches on the wings. 

Oospila flavilimes (Warren) comb.n. 
(PI. 1: 1, Figs 1,78, 146) 

Lissochlora flavilimes Warren, 1904a: 21. Holo- 
type Q\ in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; S[anto] Domingo, Cara- 
baya, 6000 ft, November]. [19]01. wet sea- 
s[on]. (Ockenden); Rothschild Bequest B.M. 
1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 14992 
Cf. [Examined.] 

Leptolopha flavilimes (Warren) 1909: 78; Prout, 
1912: 128; 1932: 52. 

Cf, 9 (PI. 1:1, Fig. 1). Fore wing length: 7-9 
mm. Antenna of female simple throughout 
length. Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal 
fillet white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. 
Wings: ground colour dark green, blotches 
absent. Fore wing: costa cream; with narrow 
yellow band along termen; discal spot small, 
brown. Hind wing: narrow yellow band along 
termen; discal spot small, white. Hind leg: proxi- 
mal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent from tibia. Abdomen: crests small, cream; 
remainder of dorsal surface cream; male lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 of male 
not strongly sclerotized, with M-shaped apex in 
male. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 78). Uncus short, tapering. 
Socii disproportionately large. Gnathos: not 
fused; not reduced; expanded not tapered at 
apices. Valva: ampulla with broad, denticulate 
apex; sacculus not extended. Anellar complex: 
completely surrounding aedeagus, with distinc- 
tive shape and extensions. Vinculum: ventral 
plate V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: 
vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 146). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: antrum large; ductus 
bursae long, not strongly sclerotized, not stri- 
ated; corpus bursae small; signum small. Ante- 
rior apophyses very short. 

Diagnosis. Distinguished from permagna by its 
smaller size and by the fore wing discal spot. In 
permagna the discal 'spot' is a short, thin, green 
line whereas in flavilimes it is a tiny brown spot. 



Distinguished from nigripunctata and pallidaria 
by the discal spot of the hind wing: in flavilimes 
this spot is white; whereas it is brown in palli- 
daria; nigripunctata has a second, brown discal 
spot, in addition to the white one. Females can 
also be distinguished from pallidaria by their 
entirely simple antennae. O. flavilimes is distin- 
guished from decorata only by means of the 
genitalia (compare Figs 78, 79, 146 and 147), in 
particular the form of the gnathos and of the 
anellar complex. 

Distribution. Peru and Brazil. 

Material examined. Peru: Puno: Santo Dom- 
ingo, Carabaya, 1800 m, lcf [holotype] wet 
season, xi.01 {Ockenden); Rio Huacamayo, 
Carabaya, 940 m, 2cf, dry season, vi.04 (Ock- 
enden). Tinguri, Carabaya, 1000 m, 4cf, dry 
season, viii.1904 (Ockenden). La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, 940 m, lcf, 19, dry season, ix.1904 
(Ockenden); 1$, wet season, x.04 (Ockenden); 
lcf, 1$, ix.1904 (Ockenden); lcf. wet season, 
iii.1905 (Ockenden); lcf, 1$, ix.05 (Ockenden); 
2cf, 29, wet season, xi— xii. 1905 (Ockenden); 
lcf, 19' wet season, i. 1906 (Ockenden). Brazil: 
Amazonas: Codajas, Upper Amazon, 2cf, 
iv.1907 (Klages). Fonte Boa, Upper Amazonas, 
19, vii. 1907 (Wages). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila decorata (Prout) comb.n. 
(Figs 2, 79, 147) 

[Leptolopha flavilimes ab. decorata Warren, 
1909: 78. Infrasubspecific name]. 

Leptolopha decorata Warren, Prout: 1932: 52. 
Holotype cf , in BMNH. Type locality: Ama- 
zonas. Label data: Type; Fonte Boa, Upp[er] 
Amazonas, May 1906 (S. M. Klages); Roths- 
child Bequest B.M. 1939-1; Leptolopha flavi- 
limes ab decorata Type cf Warr.; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 13474cf. 
[Examined.] 

C?, 9 (Fig- 2). Fore wing length 8-10 mm. 
Female antenna simple, throughout length. 
Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark grey-green; blotches absent. 
Fore wing: costa pale; narrow, pale yellow band 
along termen, discal spot small, dark brown. 
Hind wing: narrow, pale yellow band along ter- 
men; discal spot short, in form of a thin white 
line. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of 
long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: crests 
small, cream; remainder of dorsal surface green; 
male lacking brushes of long hair-scales on ster- 



10 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



num A2; elliptical sclerite absent from interseg- 
mental membrane of A2 and A3 of male; 
sternum A8 of male not strongly sclerotized, 
simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 79). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: large, not fused. Valva: apex 
cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus extended, 
expanded tip bears small spines. Anellar com- 
plex: completely surrounding aedeagus, with dis- 
tinctive shape. Vinculum: ventral plate 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
with small cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 147). Ostium: sterigma 
approximately triangular. Distinctive field of 
long bristles on sternum A8. Bursa copulatrix: 
ductus bursae with antrum narrow; below 
antrum ductus short, strongly sclerotized but not 
striated; corpus bursae small; signum small. 
Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Distinguished from permagna by its 
smaller size and by the shape of the discal spot of 
the fore wing: in permagna this is a short, thin, 
green line whereas in decorata it is a tiny brown 
spot. Distinguished from nigripunctata and palli- 
daria by the discal spot of the hind wing: in 
decorata this spot is white. Females can also be 
distinguished from pallidaria by the antenna of 
the female, which is simple throughout in deco- 
rata but bipectinate at the base in pallidaria. O. 
decorata can be distinguished from flavilimes 
only by the genitalia (compare Figs 78, 79, 146 
and 147). The male genitalia of decorata are 
characterised by the large size of the socii and 
gnathos and by the form of the valvae and anellar 
complex (Fig. 79). The presence of a field of 
bristles on the posterior margin of the ostium is 
distinctive (Fig. 147). 

Distribution. Known only from French Gui- 
ana, and Brazil. 

Remark. Leptolopha flavilimes ab. decorata 
Warren is an infra-subspecific name and there- 
fore not available, so the authorship of decorata 
is attributed to Prout (1932). 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, ld\ 1$ (Le Moult). Brazil: 
Amazonas: Fonte Boa, Upper Amazonas, Id" 
[holotype] v. 1906 (Klages); lc? vi.1906 (Klages); 
Teffe, Upper Amazonas, 1$, viii.1935 (Moss). 
Depository: BMNH. 



Oospila nigripunctata (Warren) comb.n. 
(Figs 3, 80, 148) 

Leptolopha nigripunctata Warren, 1909: 78. 

Holotype cf, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 

Label data: Type; Tinguri, Carabaya, 3400 ft, 

dry sfeason], August 1904 (G. Ockenden); 

Rothschild Bequest B.M. 1939-1; 

Geometridae genitalia slide No. 14243d- 
Leptolopha nigripunctata Warren, Prout, 1912: 

129; 1932: 52. 

Cf, 9 (Fig. 3). Fore wing length 8-llmm. 
Antenna of female simple throughout length. 
Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; blotches absent. Fore 
wing: costa cream, with narrow yellow band 
along termen; discal spot small, dark brown. 
Hind wing: with narrow yellow band along ter- 
men; anterior discal spot small, white, posterior 
discal spot small, brown. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long-hair like scales absent 
from tibia. Abdomen: crests small, cream; 
remainder of dorsal surface green; male lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 of male 
not strongly sclerotized, not modified. 

Genitalia d" (Fig. 80). Uncus bifurcate at 
apex. Socii reduced. Gnathos not fused. Valva: 
apex cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus extended 
into long, strongly sclerotized, digitate process; 
strongly sclerotized, digitate processes arising 
from base of valva. Anellar complex: narrow, 
completely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: 
ventral plate broad. Aedeagus: vesica with single 
cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 148). Ostium: sterigma dis- 
tinctive. Bursa copulatrix: antrum large, funnel- 
shaped; ductus bursae short, strongly sclerotized, 
not striated; corpus bursae quite large; signum 
very small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Distinguished from decorata, flavi- 
limes and permagna by the presence of a small, 
brown discal spot on the hind wing (compare PI. 
1 : 1 and Figs 1^) . Distinguished from pallidaria 
by its smaller size and by the genitalia. Females 
can also be distinguished from pallidaria by the 
entirely simple antennae. The male genitalia can 
be recognised by the shape of the uncus and the 
processes extending from the base of the valvae 
(Fig. 80). The female genitalia can be recognised 
by the shape of the antrum (Fig. 148). 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



11 



Distribution Recorded from French Guiana, 
Guyana, Peru and Bolivia. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, 1$ (Le Moult). 19 (Bar). 
Guyana: East Demerara-West Coast Berbice: 
Demerara, 1$, 1909-1948 (Rodway). Peru: 
Puno: Tinguri, Carabaya, 1000 m, lcf [holotype] 
dry season, viii.1904 (Ockenden).; Id", dry sea- 
son, viii.1904 (Ockenden). La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, S. E. Peru, 940 m, 2$, wet season, 
iii.1905 (Ockenden); 1$, wet season, xi— xii. 1905 
(Ockenden). Rio Huacamayo, 940 m, 2d\ 
vi.1904 (Ockenden). La Union, Rio Huacamayo, 
Carabaya, 610 m, Id" [syntype] wet season, 
xi.1904 (Ockenden). Santo Domingo, Carabaya, 
2000 m, lcT, dry season, x.1902 (Ockenden). 
Bolivia: Cochabamba: Yungas del Espiritu 
Santo, 10", 1888-1889 (Germain). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila permagna (Warren) comb.n. 
(Figs 4, 149) 

Leptolopha permagna Warren, 1909: 79. LEC- 
TOTYPE 9, here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: PERU. Label data: Type; Tin- 
guri, Carabaya, 3400 ft, dry s[eason], August 
1904 (G. Ockenden); Leptolopha permagna 
type 9 Warr.; Rothschild Bequest B.M. 
1939-1.; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
141319. [Examined.] 

Leptolopha permagna Warren, Prout, 1912: 129; 
1932:51. 

Leptolopha marginata Schaus, 1912b: 292; Prout, 
1932: 52. Holotype, 9 in USNM. Type local- 
ity: COSTA RICA: Tuis. Label data: June 07; 
Tuis CR 2400 ft; Collection Wm Schaus; Lep- 
tolopha n.sp., between flavilimes Wrn XI. 21 x 
permagna Warr. XVI. 79; Leptolopha margi- 
nata type Schs; Type No. 17732 U.S.N.M. 
[Examined.] [A junior secondary homonym of 
marginata Warren (1897).] 

9 (Fig. 4). Fore wing length 12-13 mm. Antenna 
of female simple throughout length. Frons 
brown, vertex white. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface pale green. Wings: 
ground colour pale green; blotches absent. Fore 
wing: with narrow yellow band along termen; 
discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: with narrow 
yellow band along termen; discal spot short, thin, 
pale yellow line. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent. Abdomen: crests small, cream, with 
some brown scales on outer sides; remainder of 
dorsal surface cream. 

Genitalia d"- Unknown. 



Genitalia 9 (Fig- I 49 )- Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: antrum indistinct; duc- 
tus bursae quite long, not strongly sclerotized, 
not striated; corpus bursae large, narrow; signum 
small. Anterior apophyses unusually long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila permagna is larger than 
decorata, flavilimes and nigripunctata and can 
also be distinguished from these species by the 
larger size and colour of the discal spots. In 
permagna the fore wing discal spot is a short, thin 
green line and the hind wing discal spot is a 
longer, thin yellow line. Distinguished from palli- 
daria by the white discal spot on the hind wing: in 
pallidaria this is brown; also the fore wing discal 
spot of pallidaria is smaller and darker. Females 
can also be distinguished from pallidaria by the 
presence of antennae that are simple throughout 
their length. 

Distribution. Known to occur in Peru, Costa 
Rica and Brazil. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Tuis, 19 
[holotype of marginata]. Peru: Puno: Tinguri, 
Carabaya, 1000 m, 19 [lectotype of permagna] 
dry season, viii.1904 (Ockenden); 19 [paralecto- 
type of permagna] dry season, viii.1904 (Ock- 
enden); La Oroya, R. Inambari, 940 m, 19. wet 
season (Ockenden); 19- wet season, xi— xii. 1905 
(Ockenden). Brazil: Santos: Alto da Serra, 800 

m, 19, 28.ii. 1913 (./ones)- 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila pallidaria (Schaus) comb.n. 
(Figs 5, 81, 150) 

Comostola pallidaria Schaus, 1897: 161. Holo- 
type d\ in USNM. Type locality: BRAZIL. 
Label data: Castro, Parana; Comostola palli- 
daria Type. Schs; Collection Wm Schaus; Type 
No. 11896 U.S.N.M. [Examined.] 

Leptolopha pallidaria (Schaus) Prout, 1912: 129; 
Prout, 1932: 52. 

d", 9 (fig. 5). Fore wing length 10-13 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons brown, 
vertex cream. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface cream. Wings: ground colour pale 
green, blotches absent. Fore wing: costa cream; 
with narrow white or pale yellow band along 
termen; discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: 
narrow white or pale yellow band along termen, 
discal spot small, brown. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent 
from tibia. Abdomen: crests small, cream; 
remainder of dorsal surface cream; male lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 



12 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 
strongly sclerotized in male, with bifurcate poste- 
rior extension. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 81). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos not fused. Valva: complex; 
costa with short, triangular extension below 
apex; ampulla long and narrow; sacculus 
extended into very short, strongly sclerotized, 
pointed process. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus; basal part distinctive, as 
in Fig. 81. Vinculum: ventral plate V-shaped. 
Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica with large 
cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig 150). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: antrum absent; ductus 
bursae fairly short, strongly sclerotized, not stri- 
ated; corpus bursae small; signum absent. Ante- 
rior apophyses quite long. 

Diagnosis. The presence of pectinate antennae 
in the female allows this sex to be distinguished 
from that of decor ata, flavilimes, nigripunctata 
and permagna. Both sexes are distinguished from 
these species by the presence of a small, brown 
discal spot on the hind wings, the others having a 
white discal spot (compare PI. 1: 1 and Figs 1-5). 
Oospila pallidaria can be distinguished from 
nigripunctata by the presence of only a single 
discal spot on the hind wing: in nigripunctata 
there are two (compare Figs 3 and 5). The male 
genitalia can be recognised by the form of the 
valvae and anellar complex (Fig. 81). 

Distribution. Recorded from Argentina, 
Bolivia, Paraguay and Brazil. 

Material examined. Argentina: Misiones: Rio 
Parana, 1? (Le Moult). Bolivia: Santa Cruz: 
Buenavista, East Bolivia, ld\ vii.-x.1906 (Stein- 
bach). Paraguay: Paraguay central, 1?, 1885 
(Germain). Brazil: Petropolis, Id", 1$, 1888 
(Germain); 1$. Id" (Germain). Minas Geraes: 
Uberaba, 19d, 3$, 1? (Le Moult). Sao Paulo: 
Santos, 1$. Id, 2$, 5? Parana: Castro, 890 m, 
Id [holotype]; 2d, 1? (Jones); Id, v. 01 
(Jones). Fernandes Pinheiro, 800 m. Id, iv.1910 
(Jones). Rio de Janeiro: Organ Mts, near 
Tijunca, 1$, 1902 (Wagner). 1? 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila subaurea Warren comb.n. 

(Figs 6, 82) 

Comibaena subaurea Warren, 1907: 201. Holo- 
type d, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; Tinguri, Carabaya, 3400 ft, 



dry s[eason], August 1904. (G. Ockenden).; 
Rothschild Bequest B.M. 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 13768 d- 
[Examined.] 
Leptolopha subaurea Warren, Prout, 1932: 51. 

d" (Fig. 6). Fore wing length 11-13 mm. Frons 
and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour yellow with green speckling con- 
centrated at wing base; blotches absent; mark- 
ings dark green. Fore wing: costa cream, 
speckled with green; area of solid green at apex 
and along termen, termen with brown margin; 
discal spot large, dark green. Hind wing: broad 
green band along termen, fringed with brown 
along wing margin; wing base with some green 
speckling; discal spot small, dark brown. Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales absent from tibia. Abdomen: crests 
small, very pale green; remainder of dorsal sur- 
face cream; male lacking brushes of long hair- 
scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent 
from intersegmental membrane of A2 and A3 of 
male; sternum A8 of male not strongly sclero- 
tized; simple. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 82). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos reduced, not fused. Valva: 
ampulla absent; sacculus with sub-apical exten- 
sion. Anellar complex approximately V-shaped, 
not completely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: 
ventral plate V-shaped. Coremata absent. 
Aedeagus: vesica with short cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. This species can be recognised by 
the yellow ground colour of the wings. The male 
genitalia can be recognised from the large socii 
and the shape of the anellar complex (Fig. 82). 

Distribution. The two specimens examined 
are from Peru. 

Material examined. Peru: Puno: Tinguri, 
Carabaya, 1000 m, Id [holotype] dry season, 
viii.1904 (Ockenden); Id dry season, viii.1904 
(Ockenden). 

Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila acymanta (Prout) comb.n. 

(Figs 7, 83) 

Urucumia acymanta Prout, 1933: 71 pi 8k. LEC- 
TOTYPE d, here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: BRAZIL. Label data: Type HT; 
39 27 Urucum, 15 miles S. of Corumba, 650 ft, 
19.iv.27. Matto Grosso C. L. Collenette; Uru- 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



13 



cumia acymanta d type Prout; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 14807 d- [Examined.] 

d (Fig. 7). Fore wing length 6-8 mm. Frons and 
vertex dark brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: pale 
green; unmarked except for small, brown discal 
spot. Hind wing: frenulum absent. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal two crests pale 
brown, more distal crests cream; male lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane A2-A3; sternum A8 with M-shaped apical 
edge. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 83). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
deeply cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus extended 
into long, pointed process. Anellar complex 
reduced to strongly developed juxta with two 
long, narrow posterior extensions. Vinculum: 
ventral plate emarginated. Aedeagus: vesica with 
single cornutus. 

Genitalia 9- Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Distinguished from immaculata by 
its smaller size and by the presence of a brown 
discal spot on the wings; immaculata has no 
discal spot on the hind wings. The male genitalia 
of acymanta can be recognised by the shape of 
the juxta (Fig. 83). 

Distribution. Known only from Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Mato Grosso: 
Urucum, 15 miles S. of Corumba, 200-275 m, 
2<d [paralectotypes] 18.iv.27 (Collenette); Id" 
[lectotype] 19. iv. 27 (Collenette); Id [paralecto- 
type] 21.iv.27 (Collenette); 2 d [paralectotype] 
1886 (Germain). 
Depository: BMNH. 

The quinquemaculata group 

The quinquemaculata group is characterised by 
four characters of the male genitalia. The uncus 
has a long apical extension, the gnathos is fused, 
coremata are present (except in florepicta) and 
the sacculus is not strongly developed. This 
group is distinguished from the thalassina group 
by the absence of a proximal pair of spurs on the 
hind tibia. 

Oospila quinquemaculata (Warren) 

(Figs 8, 84, 151) 

Drucia quinquemaculata Warren, 1906: 416. 



Holotype 9, in USNM. Type locality: 
FRENCH GUIANA. Label data: S[ain]t Jean, 
Maroni, F[rench] Guiana; Drucia quin- 
quemaculata type $ ; Type No. 9177 U.S.N.M; 
Collection Wm Schaus; Genitalia Slide By 
MAC 57765 USNM. [Examined.] 

Oospila quinquemaculata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
134; 1933: 58. 

Drucia circumdata Warren, 1907: 202. Holotype 
d, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. Label 
data: Type; La Oroya, R[io] Inambari, S[outh] 
Efast] Peru, 3100 ft, wet season, Octfober] 
1904. (G. Ockenden); Drucia circumdata type 
d Warr[en]; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15685 d. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila circumdata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 
1933: 58. 

Oospila circumdata striolata Prout, 1918a: 118; 
1933: 58. Holotype d, in BMNH. Type local- 
ity: PERU. Label data: Type H[olo] T[ype], 
Rio Ampiyacu, Putomayo, Peruvfian] Ama- 
z[onas]; Determined] by L.B. Prout; Joicey 
Bequest. Brit[ish] Mus[eum] 1934-120; 
Oospila circumdata striolata d type Prout; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15686 d. 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

d, 9 (Fig- 8). Fore wing length 12-14 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings reddish brown or pale brown 
with darker brown centres. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; blotch at apex large, extending to costa, 
connected to blotch at tornus by narrow band 
along termen; blotch at tornus small; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind wing: blotches at apex and 
tornus connected by narrow band along termen, 
sometimes joined to blotch at anal margin by 
narrow band along anal margin; blotch at anal 
margin small, narrow; discal spot usually small, 
brown, occasionally absent. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
brown or reddish brown; sternum A2 of male 
without brushes of long hair-scales posteriorly; 
elliptical sclerite absent from intersegmental 
membrane of sterna A2 and A3 of male; sternum 
A8 of male not strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 84). Uncus long, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: fused, not reduced. Valva: 
costa more strongly sclerotized; ampulla short, 
pointed; sacculus not extended. Anellar com- 
plex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vincu- 



14 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



lum: broad, ventral plate, sometimes W-shaped, 
sometimes U-shaped, with posterior projection. 
Coremata present. Aedeagus: vesica with large 
cornutus. 

Genitalia 2 (Fig. 151). Ostium: sterigma 
absent, but membrane laterad of ostium with 
extra sclerotization and folded to form pouch. 
Bursa copulatrix: complex of ductus bursae and 
corpus bursae large, with short striations and 
convoluted folds, antrum absent; signum small. 
Anterior apophyses quite long. 

Diagnosis. Although rather similar to continu- 
ata in external appearance, quinquemaculata can 
be distinguished by the narrow band along the 
termen connecting the blotches at the apex and 
the tornus, in continuata this band is much 
broader (compare Figs 8 and 9). Moreover, the 
apical blotch of quinquemaculata is rounded 
whereas that of continuata is indented. 

The absence of an extension of the hind wing 
at the apex of vein M 3 of the hind wing distin- 
guishes quinquemaculata from asmura (compare 
Figs 8 and 17). The form of the anellar complex 
distinguishes males of quinquemaculata from 
those of asmura and continuata (compare Figs 
84, 85 and 93). 

The female genitalia can be recognised by the 
unusual shape and convoluted folds of the bursa 
copulatrix (Fig. 151). 

Distribution. Recorded in Costa Rica, French 
Guiana, Peru, Bolivia, and northern parts of 
Brazil. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Guanacaste: 
Derrumbe, Estacion Mengo, West side Volcan 
Cacao, 1400 m, 1$, 5.vi.l988 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); Estacion Pitilla, 9 km South of Santa 
Cecilia, 700 m, 1$, xi.1989 (Moraga, Rios). 
French Guiana: Guyane: Godebert-Maroni, Id" 
(Le Moult); St. Jean du Maroni, 1°. [holotype of 
quinquemaculata]. Peru: Loreto: Rio Ampiyacu, 
lcf [holotype of circumdata striolata]. Puno: 
South East Peru, La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 
m, 1$, wet season, x.1904 (Ockenden); lcf 
[holotype of circumdata] wet season, x.1904 
(Ockenden); lcf, ix.05 (Ockenden); 2d", wet 
season, xi— xii.1905 (Ockenden). Bolivia: Santa 
Cruz: Provincia del Sara, 450 m, lcf vii.1914 
(Steinbach). Brazil: Amazonas: Upper Amazon, 
Codajas, 12 [paratype of circumdata striolata] 
iv. 1907 (Klages). 

Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, INBio, USNM. 



Oospila continuata (Warren) 
(Figs 9, 85, 152) 

Racheolopha continuata Warren, 1906: 422. 
Holotype 2' i n USNM. Type locality: 
FRENCH GUIANA. Label data: French Gui- 
ana: S[ain]t Laurent du Maroni, xii.1904; 
Schaus Collfection]; Type No. 9190 U.S.N.M. 
[Examined.] 

Oospila continuata (Warren); Prout, 1933: 58. 

Cf, 2 (Fig- 9 ). Fore win g length 9-10 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings brown. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; blotch at apex indented at apex, con- 
nected to blotch at tornus by broad band along 
termen; blotch at tornus quite small; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at apex long, 
thin, extending halfway along termen, connected 
to blotch at tornus by narrower band along 
termen; blotch at tornus connected to blotch at 
anal margin by narrower band along anal margin; 
blotch at anal margin short, narrow; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales present. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface brown; sternum A2 
with brushes of long hair-scales in male; elliptical 
sclerite absent from intersegmental membrane of 
sterna A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 not 
strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 85). Uncus long, expanded 
at apex. Socii large. Gnathos: fused, not 
reduced. Valva: costa with shallow cleft subapi- 
cally; short, subapical digitate projection near 
costa; ampulla short, with tip cleft; sacculus not 
extended. Anellar complex completely surround- 
ing aedeagus; extending posteriorly as a broad 
tongue-shaped plate (broader than in depressa, 
Fig. 143). Vinculum: ventral plate broad, 
rounded. Coremata present. Aedeagus short, 
squat; vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia 2 (Fig- 152). Ostium: with shallow 
internally-directed pocket on each side; sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae quite 
short, not strongly sclerotized or striated, antrum 
absent; corpus bursae large; signum small. Ante- 
rior apophyses quite long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila continuata is rather similar 
in external appearance to quinquemaculata, from 
which it may be distinguished by the broad band 
along the termen connecting the blotches at the 
apex and tornus (compare Figs 8 and 9). Also, 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSP1LA WARREN 



15 



continuata has a distinct apical indentation of the 
blotch at the apex of the fore wing, whereas the 
blotch is more rounded in quinquemaculata. 

The narrower and more uniform band of 
brown along the termen of the wings and the 
absence of a brick-red marking at the base of the 
fore wing distinguish continuata from excrescens 
(compare PI. 1: 2, Figs 9 and 10). 

Oospila continuata may be distinguished from 
circumsessa by the extension of the brown mark- 
ings along the anal margin of the hind wing and 
by the absence of a short extension of the hind 
wing at the apex of vein M 3 (compare Figs 9 and 
18). 

The male genitalia of continuata can be recog- 
nised by the extension of the posterior part of the 
anellar complex into a broad, tongue-shaped 
plate, and by the shape of the valvae (Fig. 85). 

Distribution. Five specimens were examined, 
four from the Guyane region of French Guiana 
and a single specimen from the Amazonas region 
of Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Amazonas: Fonte 
Boa, Id", viii.1907 (Klages). French Guiana 
Guyane: St. Jean du Maroni, 1 $ , 1? (Le Moult) 
St. Laurent du Maroni, 1$ [holotype] xii.1904 
1? 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila excrescens (Warren) 
(PI. 1:2, Figs 10,86, 153) 

Drucia excrescens Warren, 1906: 415. Holotype 
0\ in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH GUI- 
ANA. Label data: French Guiana: Maroni 
R[iver], Saint Jean, vii.1904 (Schaus Coll); 
Type No. 9176 U.S.N. M. [Examined.] 

Oospila excrescens (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 
1933: 59. 

0\ 9 (PI. 1: 2, Fig. 10). Fore wing length 9-10 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface reddish brown. Wings: ground 
colour dark green; markings reddish brown. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; blotch at apex large, 
extending to costa, connected to blotch at tornus 
by narrower band along termen; additional 
blotch at wing base or 1/3 along anal margin; 
discal spot small, reddish. Hind wing: with 
blotches at apex and tornus connected by nar- 
rower band along termen, extended along anal 
margin and connected to blotch at anal margin; 
blotch at anal margin, small, narrow; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 



basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface reddish-brown; male 
lacking brushes of long hair-scales on sternum 
A2; elliptical sclerite absent from intersegmental 
membrane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 of 
male not strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 86). Uncus long, widening 
at apex. Socii large. Gnathos fused, shape 
resembles that of uncus. Valva: ampulla short, 
triangular; large curved, denticulate sclerite 
occurring basad of ampulla; sacculus not 
extended. Anellar complex: completely sur- 
rounding aedeagus, fused to valvae posteriorly. 
Vinculum: ventral plate U-shaped with medial 
projection. Coremata present. Aedeagus: vesica 
with long cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 153). Ostium: with sur- 
rounding membrane having convoluted folds; 
sterigma absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae 
long, antrum small and strongly sclerotized; stri- 
ated below antrum; corpus bursae large; signum 
very small. Anterior apophyses quite long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila excrescens is easily recogn- 
ised by the presence of a brick-red blotch at the 
base of the fore wing (PI. 1: 2). The valva of 
excrescens has a distinctive ampulla and a den- 
ticulate sclerite (Fig. 86). 

Distribution. Most of the specimens examined 
were collected from French Guiana and Brazil, 
but two male specimens came from Peru. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
Haut Maroni, La Forestiere, 1$ (Le Moult); 
Nouveau Chantier, 19; St. Jean du Maroni, lcf 
[holotype]; 2 d"; St. Laurent du Maroni, Id", 
19; 1 CT- Peru: Madre de Dios: Tambopata 
Reserve, 30 km South West of Puerto Mal- 
donado, 300 m, 2d, 16-22. x. 1983 (Covell). Bra- 
zil: Amazonas: Fonte Boa, ld\ v. 06 (Klages); 
4cf, ix.06 (Klages); Teffe, Egas, lo". 
Depositories: BMNH, CVCJ, USNM. 

Oospila florepicta (Warren) 
(PI. 1: 3, Figs 11,87, 154) 

Racheolopha florepicta Warren, 1906: 424. Holo- 
type d, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: French Guiana: 
Maroni, Saint Jean, iv.1904; Schaus Collec- 
tion]; Type No. 9194 U.S.N.M. [Examined.] 

[Oospila florepicta ab. pulchripicta Prout, 1918b: 
82. Infra-subspecific name.] 

Oospila florepicta (Warren); Prout, 1933: 57. 

Oospila cayennensis Herbulot, 1991: 108. Holo- 
type C?, in HERB. Type locality: FRENCH 



16 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



GUIANA. Label data: Piste Nancibo Pk 6 
28— III— 1990; Guyane Francaise environs de 
Cayenne H. de Toulgoet; Pr. No6646 C. Her- 
bulot; Oospila cayennensis H[e]rb[u]l[o]t 
Holotype. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Cf, 9 (PI. 1: 3, Fig. 11). Fore wing length 13-16 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; markings brown (orange-brown in 
form cayennensis, reddish brown in form pulchri- 
picta), or with dark brown centres surrounded by 
paler brown or yellow. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; blotches at apex and tornus approxi- 
mately circular, not connected by band along 
termen; discal spot small, dark, same colour as 
blotches. Hind wing: subapical blotch and blotch 
at tornus approximately circular, not connected 
by band along termen, nor connected to blotch at 
anal margin; marking (a modified blotch) at anal 
margin small, narrowed; discal spot small, dark, 
same colour as blotches. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface dark 
coloured (same colour as wing markings); male 
lacking brushes of long hair-scales on sternum 
A2; elliptical sclerite absent from intersegmental 
membrane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 
not strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 87). Uncus long. Socii quite 
large. Gnathos fused, resembling shape of uncus. 
Valva: costa more strongly sclerotized, with 
small subapical extension; ampulla broad, with 
serrated apex; shallow notch usually occurring 
just below ampulla; sacculus not extended, typi- 
cally without denticulate margin (as illustrated in 
Fig. 87), sometimes irregularly shaped with den- 
ticulate margin. Anellar complex: V-shaped. 
Vinculum: ventral plate typically weakly emar- 
ginated, sometimes rounded. Coremata absent. 
Aedeagus: vesica with large cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 154). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: antrum indistinct; duc- 
tus widening distally, strongly sclerotized and 
striated; corpus bursae large; signum small. 
Anterior apophyses quite long. 

Diagnosis. The intricate pattern of the blotches 
makes most specimens of florepicta instantly rec- 
ognisable. However, some colour variants of this 
species are close to rosipara, from which they can 
be distinguished by the presence of blotches at 
the tornus of both the fore and hind wings 
(compare PI. 1: 3, Figs 11 and 19). The male 



genitalia of florepicta can be recognised by the 
shape of the ampulla (Fig. 87). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
French Guiana, Colombia and northern areas of 
Brazil. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
Godebert Maroni, 1°. (Le Moult); St. Jean du 
Maroni, Id (Le Moult); Id" [holotype of flo- 
repicta] iv.1904; Environs de Cayenne, piste 
Nancibo PK 6, Id [holotype of cayennensis] 
28.iii.1990 (Toulgoet); Piste Changement PK 1. 
19 [paratype of cayennensis] 27. iv. 1989 (Toul- 
goet, Navatte, Lalanne-Cassou). Colombia: 
Camea Valley, 1200 m. Id" [no date] (ex coll. 
Johnson); C.C.Hq., Bajo Calima, 90 m, Valle 
Id", 12.L1985 (Sullivan). Brazil: Para, vi.1923 
(Lemmer Coll. from Buchholz); Para, Id" 
(Moss). Amazonas: Fonte Boa, 2d, v. 1906 
(Klages); 1$, vi.1907 (Klages). 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, HERB. 

Oospila semispurcata (Warren) 
(Figs 12, 88, 155) 

Drucia semispurcata Warren, 1906: 416. Holo- 
type 9, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: French Guiana: 
Maroni Rfiver], Saint Jean, vii.1904 (Schaus 
Collection]); Type No. 9179 U.S.N. M. 
[Examined.] 

Oospila semispurcata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
134; 1933: 59. 

d\ 9 (Fig- 12). Fore wing length 12-14 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; speckled with brown except at apex of 
fore wing and wing base of fore and hind wing; 
blotches absent; discal spot of fore and hind wing 
small, brown; fore wing with costa pale brown. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales on male tibia. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface cream; male with brushes of 
long hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
present in intersegmental membrane of A2 and 
A3 of male; sternum A8 not strongly sclerotized, 
simple. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 88). Uncus long. Socii large. 
Gnathos fused. Valva: costa emarginated subapi- 
cally; ampulla quite long, expanded to denticu- 
late apex; sacculus not extended. Anellar 
complex V-shaped, with two separate ventral 
plates; not surrounding aedeagus completely. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



17 



Coremata present. Vinculum: ventral plate 
weakly emarginated with narrow medial projec- 
tion. Aedeagus: vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 155). Ostium: sterigma 
forming ring around ostium; broad medial 
pocket and smaller pocket present on each side. 
Bursa copulatrix: large, antrum and ductus bur- 
sae indistinct, with some striation at posterior; 
signum small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. The pale brown colour of the costa 
and the rounded apex of the hind wings distin- 
guishes semispurcata from granulata the only 
other species that has its wings speckled with 
brown (compare Figs 12 and 14). The male 
genitalia of semispurcata can be recognised by 
the shape of the ampulla and the anellar complex 
(Fig. 88). The female genitalia can be recognised 
by the arrangement of pockets surrounding the 
ostium (Fig. 155). 

Distribution. All specimens examined were 
collected in the Guyane region of French Gui- 
ana. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, 1Q\ 1$ {Le Moult); Id", 1$ 
[holotype] vii.1904; 3$; St. Laurent du Maroni, 
lO". 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila rhodophragma Prout 

(PI. 1:4, Figs 13,89) 

Oospila rhodophragma Prout, 1916: 170; 1933: 
59. Holotype d\ in BMNH. Type locality: 
BRAZIL. Label data: Type; Codajas, Upper 
Amazon, April 1907 (S.M. Klages); Roths- 
child Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; fig 
[d] in Seitz VIII; Oospila rhodophragma cf 
type Prout; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15731CT. [Examined.] 

O" (PI. 1: 4, Fig. 13). Fore wing length 12 mm. 
Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; blotches absent. Fore 
wing: costa white, with brown line inside and 
parallel to costa; with narrow white band along 
termen, marked with small brown patches at 
ends of veins; with parallel brown line inside 
white band; discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: 
narrow white band along termen, penetrated at 
points by brown line proximal to this; parallel 
brown line inside white band; discal spot small, 
brown. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal 
crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface green; 
lacking brushes of long hair-scales on sternum 



A2; elliptical sclerite absent from intersegmental 
membrane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 
not strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 89). Uncus long. Socii large. 
Gnathos: fused, not reduced. Valva: ampulla 
long, narrow; sclerite basal of ampulla rounded 
with apex denticulate; sacculus extended slightly 
to broad, rounded lobe, not strongly sclerotized. 
Anellar complex: completely surrounding aedea- 
gus. Coremata present. Vinculum: ventral plate 
broad, U-shaped. Aedeagus: vesica striated and 
lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia 9- Unknown. 

Diagnosis. The white colour of the fore wing 
costa and absence of other markings distin- 
guishes rhodophragma from other species of 
Oospila. The male genitalia of rhodophragma 
can be recognised by the shape of the ampulla 
and the sclerite basal to it on the valva (Fig. 89). 

Distribution. Known only from one specimen, 
which was collected in Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Amazonas: 
Upper Amazon, Codajas, 10" [holotvpe] iv. 1907 
(Klages). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila granulata (Warren) comb.n. 

(Figs 14, 90) 

Rhombochlora granulata Warren, 1909: 89. 
Holotype cf, in BMNH. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Type; Fonte Boa, Amazonas, 
July 1906, (S. M. Klages); Rothschild Bequest 
B.M. 1939-1; fig in Seitz 8; Rhombochlora 
granulata type O" Warr.; Geometridae genita- 
lia slide No. 15810 0". 

Cf (Fig. 14). Fore wing length 14 mm. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface pale, reddish brown. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; speckled with reddish 
brown, blotches absent. Fore wing: costa white; 
with white line along basal part of termen; brown 
speckling most concentrated at tornus; discal 
spot small, brown. Hind wing: white line along 
termen towards apex; discal spot small, brown. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown with mesal, 
long, green, hair-like scales (unlike in all other 
species of Oospila); remainder of dorsal surface 
green; lacking brushes of long, hair-scales on 
sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from inter- 
segmental membrane of A2 and A3, sternum A8 
not strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 90). Uncus long. Socii large. 



18 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Gnathos fused, not reduced. Valva: ampulla 
absent; sacculus extended to short, robust, apical 
process; facing edges of valvae strongly sclero- 
tized, denticulate. Anellar complex reduced to 
strongly developed juxta, with two long, narrow 
posterior extensions. Coremata present. Vincu- 
lum: ventral plate broad, U-shaped. Aedeagus: 
vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. The white costa and the green scales 
in the middle of the abdominal crests are features 
distinguishing granulata from semispurcata. The 
male genitalia of granulata can be recognised by 
the modification of the facing edges of the valvae 
(Fig. 90). 

Distribution. Known only from one specimen, 
which was collected in Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Amazonas: Fonte 
Boa, 1 d" [holotype] vii.1906 (Klages). 
Depository: BMNH. 

The thalassina group 

The thalassina group is distinguished by a suite of 
characters. There are two pairs of spurs on the 
male hind tibia; sternum A8 in the male is not 
strongly sclerotized, and not extended posteri- 
orly. In the male genitalia the uncus is long and 
the gnathos fused. The male valvae are simple 
and lacking an ampulla, and the sacculus of the 
valva is not extended in this group. 

Oospila thalassina Warren 

(Figs 15, 91) 

Oospila thalassina Warren, 1905: 318; Prout, 
1912: 134. Holotype cf , in BMNH. Type local- 
ity: PERU. Label data: Cuzco, Peru, April 
1901. (Garlepp); Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; Oospila thalassina type cf 
Warrfen]; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
16309 Cf. [Examined.] 

Oospiloma thalassina (Warren); Prout, 1916: 
170; 1932: 55. 

Cf (Fig. 15). Fore wing length 13-16 mm. Frons 
and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings dark brown. 
Fore wing: costa dark brown; subapical blotch 
and blotch at tornus small, joined by narrow 
band along termen; discal spot large, brown. 
Hind wing: blotches absent; termen with narrow 
band; anterior discal spot small, white; posterior 
discal spot small, brown. Hind leg: proximal 



spurs present; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
cream; sternum A2 with brushes of long hair- 
scales absent; elliptical sclerite absent from inter- 
segmental membrane between A2 and A3; 
sternum A8 not strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 91). Uncus long, broadening 
slightly at apex. Socii large. Gnathos: fused, not 
reduced. Valva: ampulla absent; sacculus lobed. 
Anellar complex: shape distinctive; completely 
surrounding aedeagus; extended posteriorly into 
short tongue-like process (obscured by gnathos 
and dotted in Fig. 91). Vinculum: ventral plate 
broad, U-shaped, with short medial projection. 
Coremata present. Aedeagus small, short and 
squat; cornutus absent. 

Genitalia?. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. The wing markings of Oospila 
thalassina are similar to those of confluaria and 
dicraspeda (compare Figs 15, 42 and 47), but 
thalassina may be distinguished by the presence 
of a proximal pair of spurs on the hind tibia. The 
simple sternum A8, long uncus, fused gnathos, 
and the presence of coremata distinguish males 
of thalassina from those of the other two species 
(compare Figs 91, 115 and 120). The wing mark- 
ings differ from those of lacteguttata, which is the 
only other species of Oospila with proximal spurs 
on the hind tibia (compare Figs 15 and 16). 

Distribution. An Andean species, collected in 
Peru and Bolivia. 

Material examined. Peru: 2 cf (Le Moult). 
Amazonas: Huambo, 7 cf , IV er Trimestre 1889 
(Mathan). Cuzco: lcf [holotype] iv.1901 {Gar- 
lepp); Avispas, Madre de Dios, 2cf, 
10-20.X.1962 (Pena). Puno: La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, 940 m, lcf, dry season, ix.01 (Ock- 
enden). Bolivia: lcf (Germain). 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH. 

Oospila lacteguttata (Warren) 
(Figs 16, 92) 

Racheolopha lacteguttata Warren, 1909: 85. 
LECTOTYPE cf , here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: PERU. Label data: Huan- 
cabamba, Cerro de Pasco (E. Boettger); Roth- 
schild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Racheolopha lacteguttata type d 1 Warrfen]; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 16308 cf. 
[Examined.] 

Oospila lacteguttata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



19 



Oospiloma lacteguttata (Warren); Prout, 1916: 
170; 1932: 54. 

Progonodes fenestrata Bastelberger, 1911: 54; 
Prout, 1912: 132. Holotype d\ in Senckenberg 
Museum. Type locality: PERU. Label data: 
fenestrata Bastelbferger]; Typus; Collection] 
Bastelberger. [Not examined]. Syn.n. 

Oospiloma fenestrata (Bastelberger); Prout, 
1932: 54. 

Oospila peralta Schaus, 1912b: 287. LECTO- 
TYPE cf, here designated, in USNM. Type 
locality: COSTA RICA. Label data: Febru- 
ary] 07; Peralta 2000 ft C[osta] R[ica]; Collec- 
tion Wm Schaus; Type No. 17720 U.S.N.M; 
Oospila peralta type Sch[au]s; Genitalia Slide 
By MAC 57761 USNM. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospiloma (?) peralta (Schaus); Prout, 1916: 
170; 1932: 55. 

Cf (Fig. 16). Fore wing length 11-13 mm. Frons 
and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; blotches absent. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; cream band along ter- 
men, brown band proximal and parallel to cream 
band; white spots marking apices of veins; discal 
spot small, brown. Hind wing: markings on ter- 
men as for fore wing; discal spot small, white. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs present on tibia; brush 
of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface green; sternum A2 with brushes 
of long hair-scales absent; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane between 
A2 and A3; sternum A8 not strongly sclerotized, 
simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 92). Uncus long, slightly 
expanded at apex. Socii large. Gnathos: fused, 
not reduced. Valva: with shallow subapical cleft; 
narrowing towards apex; ampulla absent; margin 
of sacculus lobed. Anellar complex: shape dis- 
tinctive. Vinculum: ventral plate broad with 
medial projection. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: 
vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. The presence of proximal spurs on 
the hind tibia distinguishes lacteguttata from 
other species of Oospila (except for thalassina, a 
species easily distinguished by means of the wing 
markings, compare Figs 15 and 16). Oospila 
lacteguttata can be distinguished from immacu- 
lata by the presence of a brown discal spot on the 
fore wings (compare Figs 16 and 61) and from 
holochroa by the presence of a single discal spot 
only on the hind wings (compare Figs 16 and 34). 



The long uncus, fused gnathos and the form of 
the anellar complex also distinguish males of 
lacteguttata from the other species (compare Figs 
91,92, 109 and 133). 

Distribution. Material has been examined 
from Costa Rica, Colombia and Peru. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Cartago: 
Peralta, 610 m, lcf [lectotype of peralta] ii.07. 
Colombia: Meta: East Colombia: Upper Rio 
Negro, Id" (Fassl). Peru: Cajamarca: Huan- 
cabamba, Cerro de Paseo, lcf [lectotype of 
lacteguttata] (Boettger); Id" [paralectotype of 
lacteguttata] (Boettger); Id" (Boettger). Id" (Le 
Moult). 

Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

The asmura group 

The asmura group is distinguished by a short 
extension of the hind wing at the distal end of 
vein M 3 , terminating in a tuft of scales projecting 
beyond the fringe, and by the distinctive, large 
transtillae in the male genitalia. 

Oospila asmura (Druce) 
(Figs 17, 93, 156) 

Racheospila (?) asmura Druce, 1892: 92. Holo- 
type cf, in MNHU. Type locality: PANAMA. 
Label data: 715; Origin; Zool. Mus[eum] Ber- 
lin; Chiriqui; Typus; Racheospila asmura cf 
type Druce. [Examined.] 

Drucia asmura (Druce); Warren, 1900: 133. 

Oospila asmura (Druce); Prout, 1912: 133; 1933: 
59. 

Drucia latimargo Warren, 1904a: 20. Holotype 
Cf, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. Label 
data: Type; S[anto] Domingo, Carabaya, 6000 
ft, XII. 01. wet seas[on] (Ockenden); Oospila 
latimargo type d Warr[en]; Rothschild 
Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15730 cf. 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila latimargo (Warren); Prout, 1912: 133; 
1932: 59. 

Drucia fumidimargo Dognin, 1911b: 162. Holo- 
type cf, in USNM. Type locality: COLOM- 
BIA. Colombia: [Valle,] near Cali, Alto de las 
Cruces, 2200 m, iii.1909 (Fassl). [Examined.] 
Syn.n. 

Oospila fumidimargo (Dognin); Prout, 1912: 
134; 1933: 59. 

Cf, $ (Fig. 17). Fore wing length 10-16 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet brown. Thorax: dor- 



20 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



sal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green, markings reddish brown. Fore wing: 
costa pale brown; blotch at apex large, usually 
connected by narrow band along termen to 
blotch at tornus; discal spot small, brown. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex large, connected by narrow 
band along termen to blotch at tornus; blotch at 
tornus smaller, connected to blotch at anal mar- 
gin by narrow band along anal margin; blotch at 
anal margin small, narrow; discal spot small, 
brown; usually with short extension of wing at 
distal end of vein M 3 , marked by one or two tufts 
of dark brown scales projecting beyond wing 
fringe. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of 
long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface reddish brown; male lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 with 
posterior edge emarginated in male. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 93). Uncus not extended. 
Socii small. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: apex rounded; ampulla absent; sacculus 
not extended. Transtillae in form of massive 
curved projections, not fused to each other, 
membranous in smaller specimens, strongly scle- 
rotized and with denticulate apex in larger speci- 
mens (as in Fig. 93). Anellar complex: V-shaped. 
Vinculum: ventral plate formed by two strongly 
sclerotized rods, joined by more weakly sclero- 
tized plate. Aedeagus: vesica with small cornu- 
tus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 156). Ostium: surrounded by 
weakly sclerotized convoluted folds; sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae short, 
strongly sclerotized but not striated; antrum 
indistinct; corpus bursae approximately spheri- 
cal; signum small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila asmura is similar to Camilla 
in external appearance, but can be distinguished 
by the absence of a green patch enclosed within 
the red-brown markings of the fore wings (com- 
pare Figs 17 and 21). The female genitalia of 
these two species can be distinguished by the 
absence of a pocket posterior of the ostium in 
asmura (compare Figs 156 and 158). 

Oospila asmura can be distinguished from cir- 
cumsessa by the separation of the blotches at the 
apex and the tornus of the fore wings; by the 
absence of small yellow markings within the 
brown markings of the hind wings; and by the 
extension, along the anal margin of the hind 
wings, of the blotch at the tornus (compare Figs 
17 and 18). The male genitalia of asmura and 



circumsessa are quite similar, but the sacculus of 
the valva of asmura is not extended, whereas it is 
in circumsessa (compare Figs 93 and 94) . 

The extension of the blotch at the tornus of the 
hind wing along the anal margin, and the exten- 
sion of the hind wing at the apex of vein M 3 
distinguish asmura from jaspidata (compare Figs 
17 and 65). 

The male genitalia of asmura are distinguished 
from those of rosipara and delphinata by the 
absence of small spines at the tip of the valvae 
(compare Figs 93 and 95). These three species 
also have distinctive wing markings (compare 
Figs 17, 19 and 20). The female genitalia of 
asmura can be distinguished from those of del- 
phinata and rosipara by the absence of striation 
of the ductus bursae in asmura (compare Figs 156 
and 157). 

Distribution. Widely distributed in Central 
and South America. 

Material examined. Guatemala: Quezalt- 
enago: Volcan Santa Maria, Id". Acatenango, 
Quisache: Chimaltenango, 1750 m, Id", 
10.x. 1966 (Welling). Costa Rica: Cartago: Cachi, 
1 $. Moravia de Chirripo, 1000 m, 1 $, 
10. v. 1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); Juan Vinas, 760 
m, ld\ v. (Schaus); 2cf , 3$; Orosi, 1200 m, 2 cf 
(Fassl); Sitio, lcf- Puntarenas: Monteverde, lcf, 
1$ (Covelf); 35 km NE San Vito, near Las 
Alturas, Las Alturas Field Station, 1400 m, lcf, 
22.iii.1991 {Miller); 35 km NE of San Vito, Las 
Alturas Field Station, 1$, 29. v. 1992, 1$, 
20. vi. 1992 (Snyder); l^- Panama: Chiriqui: 
Bogava, Chiriqui, 240 m, 1$ (Watson); Chiriqui, 
lcf [holotype of asmura]; Volcan, 1$, vii.1981 
(Kraus). French Guiana: Guyane: St. Laurent du 
Maroni, lcf- Venezuela: Aragua: Rancho 
Grande, 1100 m, Parque Nacional Henri Pittier, 
lcf, 25.vi.74 (Pilske); 1$. Lara: Yacambu 
National Park, 13 km South East Sanare, 1500 
m, 3cf • Colombia: Meta: East Colombia: Upper 
Rio Negro, 800 m, 4cf (Fassl). Tolima: Rio 
Toche, Quindiu, 2400 m, lcf; 4cf. Valle: Near 
Cali, Alto de las Cruces, 2200 m, lcf [holotype 
of fumidimargo] iii.1909 (Fassl). Ecuador: lcf, 
1920 (Hammond). Bolivar: Balzapamba, 1$, 
ix.1883-ii.1884 (Mathan). Chimborazo: Huigra, 
1$. Loja: Environs de la Loja, lcf, 1891; 2cf, 1 
?; Loja, lcf. Morona-Santiago: Sevilla Don 
Bosco, 1070 m, lcf, 8-11. v. 1986 (McKamey). 
Peru: lcf (Mathan); Rio Bamba, Hacienda 
Cayandeled, Versant Guest Cordillieres, 1300 m, 
lcf, 1$, ii. 1883 (Stolzmann). Amazonas: 
Chachapoyas, 15cf, 1889 (Mathan); Huambo, 
lcf, 1889 (Mathan). Cajamarca: Huancabamba, 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



21 



Cerro de Paseo, 2-300 m, lcf (Boettger); Huan- 
cabamba, Cerro de Paseo, 2 cf (Boettger). 
Cuzco: Caradoc, Marcapata, 1200 m, 1$, ii.01 
(Ockenden); Cuzco, lcf, ii. 1952 (Waylkowski). 
Huanuco: Pozuzo, 1500-1800 m, lcf (Native 
collector). Puno: La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 
m, lcf, dry season, ix.04 (Ockenden); lcf, wet 
season, ix.04 (Ockenden); lcf, 1$, wet season, 
iii.05 (Ockenden); 1$, ix.05 (Ockenden); lcf, 
wet season, xi-xi.1905 (Ockenden); 1$, wet sea- 
son, xii.05 (Ockenden). La Union, Rio Huaca- 
mayo, 610 m, 2cf , wet season, xi.04 (Ockenden); 
lcf, wet season, xii.1904 (Ockenden); 
Oconeque, 2100 m, 19, dry season, vii.1904 
(Ockenden). Santo Domingo, 1800 m, lcf [holo- 
type of latimargo] wet season, xii.01 (Ockenden); 
lcf, xi.1904 (Ockenden); Tinguri, 1000 m, 5cf, 
dry season, viii.1904 (Ockenden). Bolivia: 
Cochabamba: Charaplaya, 65°W 16°S, 1300 m, 
lcf, vi.01 (Simons); Yungas del Espiritu Santo, 
llCf, 1888-1889 (Germain); Incachaca, 1$. La 
Paz: Balzapamba, 2cf, 1$; Rio Songo, 750 m, 
10"; Rio Songo, 1400 m, lcf, 24-30.X.1984 
(Pena). Sud Yugas: Puente Villa, lcf (Covell). 
River Tamampaya, lcf (Garlepp); 3cf (Ger- 
main). Argentina: Jujuy: Parque Nacional Calile- 
gua, 4.5 km along Rt.83, 800 m, lcf, 5.iv.l992 
(DeVries, Di lorio, Quinter, Yeates); Parque 
Nacional Calilegua (near entrance), Rt.83, along 
Rio San Lorenzo, 575m, lcf, iii,iv.l992 
(DeVries, Di lorio, Quinter, Yeates); 7.6 km 
from Rt.9 along Leon to Tiraxi road, 1650 m, 
lCf, 9, 11. iv. 1992 (DeVries, Di lorio, Quinter, 
Yeates); Rt.83 near entrance Parque Nacional 
Calilegua along Rio San Lorenzo, 575m, 19- 
31.iii.-3.iv.1992 (De Vries, Di lorio, Quinter, 
Yeates); Parque National Calilegua, 4.5 km along 
Rt.83, 800 m, 1$, 5.iv.l992 (De Vries, Di lorio, 
Quinter, Yeates). 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
CVCJ, INBio, MNHU, USNM. 

Oospila circumsessa Prout 

(Figs 18, 94) 

Oospila circumsessa Prout, 1918a: 119; 1933: 59. 
Holotype cf , in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; Contamana Rio Ucayali, 
Peru, Nov[ember]-Dec[ember] 1912; Oospila 
circumsessa cf type Prout; Joicey Bequest. 
British] Mus[eum] 1934-120. [Examined.] 

Cf (Fig. 18). Fore wing length 10 mm. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; markings reddish brown. Fore wing: 
costa pale brown; red-brown band along termen. 



not extending along costa, widest at tornus, 
yellowish towards termen; discal spot small, 
brown. Hind wing: blotches at apex and tornus 
joined by narrow band along termen, with small 
yellow patch 1/3 along termen; blotch at anal 
margin absent; discal spot small, brown; wings 
with short extension at angle, marked by small 
tuft of dark scales projecting beyond fringe. Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface brown; lacking brushes of long hair- 
scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent 
from intersegmental membrane of A2 and A3 of 
male; posterior margin of sternum A8 emargin- 
ated. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 94). Uncus short, not 
extended. Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not 
reduced. Valva: cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus 
extended to short, robust apical process. Tran- 
stillae: large outwardly curving, weakly sclero- 
tized lobes with pointed tips. Anellar complex: 
V-shaped; incompletely surrounding aedeagus. 
Vinculum: ventral plate broad, W-shaped. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus: vesica with short cornu- 
tus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila circumsessa may be distin- 
guished from asmura and jaspidata by the merg- 
ing of the blotches on the fore wings, and by the 
presence of small yellow markings within the 
brown markings of the hind wings (compare Figs 
17, 18 and 65). The male genitalia of circumsessa 
and asmura are quite similar, but the sacculus of 
asmura is not extended as it is in circumsessa 
(compare Figs 93 and 94). 

Distribution. Only two males were examined, 
both from the Loreto region of Peru. 

Material examined. Peru: Loreto: Conta- 
mana, Rio Ucayali, lcf [holotype] xi— xii. 1912; 
Pumayacu, lcf. 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila rosipara (Warren) 

(Figs 19, 95, 157) 

Racheospila rosipara Warren, 1897: 431. Holo- 
type cf , in BMNH. Type locality: VENEZU- 
ELA. Label data: Type; Palma Sola, 
Venezuela; Racheolopha; Racheospila rosi- 
para type cf Warrfen]; Racheolopha; Roths- 
child Bequest B[ritish] Mfuseum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15040 cf. 
[Examined.] 



22 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Oospila rosipara (Warren); Prout, 1912: 133; 
1933: 57. 

Racheolopha flavicincta Warren, 1900: 137. 
Holotype 9, in BMNH. Type locality: VEN- 
EZUELA. Label data: Type; Palma Sola, 
Venezuela; Rothschild Bequest Bfritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; Racheolopha flavicincta 
type $ Warren; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15039 $. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila flavicincta (Warren); Prout, 1933: 57. 

Racheolopha microspila Warren, 1909: 86. Holo- 
type d, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; La Union, R[io] Huaca- 
mayo, Carabaya, 200 ft, wet season, Dec[em- 
ber] 1904. (G. Ockenden); Racheolopha 
microspila type d Warr[en]; Rothschild 
Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15041 d- 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila microspila (Warren); Prout, 1933: 57. 

Racheolopha conversa Dognin, 1908: 264. Holo- 
type $, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: French Guiana: S[ain]t 
Laurent du Maroni. [Examined.] Synonymized 
by Prout, 1932: 57. 

Oospila conversa (Dognin); Prout, 1912: 134. 

[Oospila rosipara ab. conversa Prout, 1933: 57. 
Infra-subspecific name.] 

Cf, 9 (Fig. 19). Fore wing length 12-18 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet brown. Thorax: dor- 
sal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; markings dark brown, or pale brown 
with darker perimeters. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; blotch at apex large; blotch at tornus 
absent; discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: 
blotch at apex large; blotch at tornus absent; 
blotch at anal margin large, narrow; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface brown or green; 
male lacking brushes of long hair-scales on ster- 
num A2; elliptical sclerite absent from interseg- 
mental membrane of A2 and A3 of male; 
sternum A8 posterior edge emarginated in male. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 95). Uncus reduced to broad 
bar. Socii small, narrow. Gnathos: not fused, not 
reduced. Valva: narrows markedly towards spi- 
nose apex; ampulla absent; sacculus not 
extended. Transtillae: large outwardly curving, 
weakly or strongly sclerotized lobes, denticulate 
in larger specimens, not denticulate in smaller 
specimens. Anellar complex: reduced to 
V-shaped juxta. Vinculum: ventral plate broad, 



weakly emarginated. Coremata absent. Aedea- 
gus: vesica with short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 157). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae short, 
strongly sclerotized, striated, antrum indistinct; 
corpus bursae quite small; signum small. Ante- 
rior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. The large blotches at the apex of the 
fore and hind wings and the absence of blotches 
at the tornus of the wings distinguishes rosipara 
from other Oospila with blotches on the wings. 
The male and female genitalia are indistinguish- 
able from those of delphinata (Figs 95, 157). 

Distribution. This species is widely distributed 
in Central and South America. 

Material examined. Guatemala: Izabel: 
Cayuga, 4d\ 1$; 1$, v. (Schaus, Barnes). Costa 
Rica: Limon: Guapiles, Id"; Sixaola River, Id; 
Id, iii. Osa Peninsula: Sirena, Corcovado 
National Park, 2d\ 11. i. 1981 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs). Cartago: Turrialba, 1$, 30. v. 1962 
(Ruckes). Panama: La Choerra, 19- French Gui- 
ana: Guyane: St. Jean du Maroni, 4d, iii. (Le 
Moult); Nouveau Chantier, Id", iii. (Le Moult); 
Id, vii (Le Moult); Cayenne, Id"; St. Laurent 
du Maroni, Id, 1$ [holotype of conversa]; 2$. 
Venezuela: Palma Sola, Id [holotype of rosi- 
para]; 1$ [holotype of flavicincta]; Id; 1$, 
vi.1909 (Klages). Aragua: El Limon, 450 m, 1$. 
Barinas: Barinas, Rio Caparo Research Station, 
32 km East El Canton, Id- Carabobo: San 
Esteban, Id, 1?. vi.1909 (Klages); Las 
Quiguas, Esteban Valley, Id, 1914; Id, 1?. 
Miranda: Miranda Parque Nacional, Guatopo 
Agua Blanca, 500 m, 19, 7. v. 1975. Colombia: 
Boyaca: River Cantinero, Muzo, 400 m, Id 
(Fassl). Minca, 610 m, 19 (Smith); Muzo, 
400-800 m, 2 d (Fassl). Cauca: Popayan, 2d. 
Meta: Upper Rio Negro, Ost Colombia, 800 m, 
Id (Fassl). Ecuador: Bulim, 50 m, 19, xii.00 
(FL, M.). Loja, Santiago-Zamora: Cumbaratza, 
SE Loja, Id, 3-4.iv.1965 (Pena). Peru: Hua- 
nuco: Tingo Maria, Id- Junin: Lima- 
Charchamayo, Id (Moss); La Merced, 910-1400 
m, ld\ i-ii.20 (Watkins). Cuzco: Quincemil, 730 
m, Id, viii.1962 (Pena). Puno: La Union, Rio 
Huacamayo, Carabaya, 60 m, Id [holotype of 
microspila] wet season, xii.1904 (Ockenden). 
Brazil: Amazonas: Sao Paulo de Olivenca, Id; 
Hyntanahan, Rio Purus, Id, ii.1922 (Klages); 
Fonte Boa, Id, vi.1906 (Klages). Para: Unt. 
Amaz. Taperinha, below Santarem, Id, 
l-10.vii.27 (Zerny). 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSP1LA WARREN 



23 



Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
INBio, USNM, UCVM. 

Oospila delphinata (Warren) 
(Figs 20, 95, 157) 

Drucia delphinata Warren, 1900: 133. Holotype 
0", in BMNH. Type locality: BRAZIL. Label 
data: Sao Paulo, Drucia delphinata type d" 
Warr[en]; Type; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15728 d". [Examined.] 

Oospila delphinata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 133; 
1933: 59. 

Racheolopha plurimaculata Warren, 1907: 208. 
Holotype d\ in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; Pozuzo, Huanuco, 800-1000 
m. (W. Hoffmann); Racheolopha plurimacu- 
lata type d" Warr[en|; Rothschild Bequest 
Bfritishj Mfuseum] 1939-1; Geometridae geni- 
talia slide No. 15727 o". [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila plurimaculata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
134; 1933: 59. 

Oospila plurimaculata symmicta Prout, 1933: 59. 
Holotype cf, depository unknown. Type local- 
ity: BRAZIL. Label data: Brazil: Minas Ger- 
aes, 4.ii (collection) Seitz). [Not examined.] 
Syn.n. 

Racheospila heteromorpha Warren, 1909: 84. 
LECTOTYPE d\ here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: PARAGUAY. Label data: 
Type; Sapucay, Paraguay, 16.x. 01. (W. Fos- 
ter); Racheolopha heteromorpha type o" War- 
den]; Rothschild Bequest B(ritish) M[useum] 
1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15729 
Cf • [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila heteromorpha (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
134. 

Oospila delphinata heteromorpha (Warren); 
Prout, 1933: 59. 

Cf, 9 (Fig. 20). Fore wing length 9-13 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings cream or pale brown, irrorated 
with dark brown and with dark brown perim- 
eters. Fore wing: costa pale brown; blotch at 
apex small (very small in form plurimaculata 
symmicta; Prout, 1933) not extending to costa, 
connected to blotch at tornus by barely visible 
dark line along termen; blotch at tornus small; 
discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: usually 
slightly produced at angle, often with tuft of long 
brown scales marking extension; blotch at apex 
large, extending half length of termen, connected 
to blotch at tornus by dark line along termen; 
blotch at tornus small, connected to blotch at 



anal margin by dark line. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface dark 
brown or green; male lacking brushes of long 
hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of A2 and 
A3 of male; sternum A8 emarginated posteriorly 
in male. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 95). As for rosipara. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 157). As for rosipara. 

Diagnosis. The blotches of delphinata are 
smaller, and paler than in rosipara (compare Figs 
19 and 20) and the hind wings of delphinata have 
a blotch at the tornus and a short extension at the 
apex of vein M 3 . 

Distribution. Unlike rosipara, this species 
does not occur in Central America, but speci- 
mens have been collected in Colombia, Ecuador, 
Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay. Brazil and Argentina. 

Remark. The synonymy of Oospila plurimacu- 
lata symmicta is based on the description and 
illustration of Prout (1933: 59, PI. 7. Fig. h). 
Attempts to trace the type have proved unsuc- 
cessful. 

Material examined. Colombia: Cundinamar- 
ca: Mediana, Id- Ecuador: Pastaza: Huigra, 
2100 m, 10", 3.vi.l931 (Coxey). Peru: Huanuco: 
Pozuzo, Huanuco, 800-1000 m, Id" [holotype of 
plurimaculata] (Hoffmann); Peru: Junin: 1000 m, 
San Ramon, Estancia Naranjal, Id", 
20-27. vii. 1965 (Wygodzinsky). Bolivia: Santa 
Cruz: Central Bolivia: Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 
450 m. Id 1 , ix.1909 (Steinbach). Paraguay: Itape, 
Id", 27.xi,24 (Schade). Paraguari: Sapucay: Id" 
[lectotype of heteromorpha] 16.x. 01 (Foster); Id" 
[paralectotype of heteromorpha] 16.x. 04 (Fos- 
ter); 1$ [paralectotype of delphinata heteromor- 
pha] x.04 (Foster); la" (Foster). Brazil: Serra de 
Baturlite, Ceara, Id", i-1985 (Gounelle). Rio 
Grande do Sul, Id". Minas Geraes: 10"; 1? (Le 
Moult). Mato Grosso: Burity, Mato Grosso, 20 
miles North East of Cuyaba, 690 m, Id", 
6-21.ix.27 (Collenette); Chapada, near Cuyaba, 
Mato Grosso, 4d" (Smith). Para: Unt. Amaz. 
Taperinha, below Santarem, Id", 10. vii. 27 
(Zerny). Parana: Castro, 890 m, Id" (Jones). 
Iguassu, Id", 1?, xi.1922. Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia, 
700 m, Estado do Rio Brasil, Id"; Nova 
Friburgo, 1$. Santa Catarina: Santa Catarina, 
Nova Bremen, Rio Laeiss, Id", iv.1936 (Hoff- 
mann); Rio Laeiss, Blumenau 2d, x.1934 (Hoff- 
mann); Blumenau, 2d", 29.iv.29 (Schade); 



24 



MA. COOK AND MJ. SCOBLE 



Jaragua do Sul, ld\ xi.27 (Hoffmann); Hansa 
Humbolt, 60 m, lcf, vii.1936 (Mailer); Rio 
Natal, vie. Sao Beuto do Sul, lcf, 15.viii.1985 
(Mielke, Casegrande) . Sao Paulo: South East 
Brazil, Sao Paulo, lcf [holotype of delphinata}; 
3cf, 1$; 700 m, 2 cf (Jones). Argentina: Jujuy. 
Rt.83, near entrance Parque Nacional Calilegua 
along Rio San Lorenzo, lcf, 3 1 . iii— 3 . iv . 1 992 
(DeVries, Di Iorio, Quinter, Yeates); Ledesma, 
5.5-7.5 km W of Rt. 34 near entrance Parque 
Nacional Calilegua, 1600 m, 2cf, 14.ii.1991, 
mesic forest along river (Johnson et al.). 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
CVCJ, USNM. 

Oospila Camilla Schaus 

(PI. 1:5, Figs 21, 96, 158) 

Oospila Camilla Schaus, 1913: 350; Prout, 1933: 
58. Holotype $, in USNM. Type locality: 
COSTA RICA. Label data: March; Sixaola 
Riv[er] Cfosta] R[ica]; Oospila; Type No. 
17979 U.S.N.M; Oospila Camilla type 
Sch[au]s; Genitalia Slide By MAC 57759 
USNM. [Examined.] 

Cf , $ (PI. 1: 5; Fig. 21). Fore wing length 11-12 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; markings reddish brown. Fore wing: 
costa pale brown; very broad red-brown band 
along termen interrupted in unique male speci- 
men by small subapical green patch and two 
yellow spots halfway along termen; discal spot 
small, red-brown. Hind wing: broad red-brown 
band along termen, extended along anal margin 
as a narrow band, then expanding at wing base; 
discal spot red-brown; wing slightly produced at 
angle. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of 
long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface brown or cream; sternum A2 of 
male lacking brushes of long hair-scales; elliptical 
sclerite absent from intersegmental membrane 
between A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 of male 
not strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 96). Uncus long, slightly 
expanded at apex. Socii large. Gnathos fused, 
with long medial projection. Valva: ampulla dis- 
tinctive (Fig. 96); sacculus not extended. Anellar 
complex: distinctive (Fig. 96); posterior exten- 
sions fused to dorsal area of valvae and anterior 
extensions fused to ventral area. Vinculum: ven- 
tral plate broad, with medial projection Core- 



mata present. Aedeagus: vesica with short 
cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 158). Ostium: with small 
pocket posteriorly; sterigma ring-shaped. Bursa 
copulatrix: ductus bursae reduced, neither 
strongly sclerotized nor striated, antrum absent; 
corpus bursae quite small: signum small. Ante- 
rior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. The wing markings of Camilla are 
similar to those of asmura, but in Camilla the 
red-brown markings of the wings are broader. 
The male genitalia can be recognised by the form 
of the ampullae and of the anellar complex (Fig. 
96). The female genitalia can be recognised by 
the presence of a pocket posterior to the ostium 
(Fig. 158). 

Distribution. Known only from Limon Prov- 
ince in Costa Rica. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Limon: Sixa- 
ola River, 1$ [holotype] iii. [no year]; Cerro 
Tortuguero, Parque Nacional Tortuguero, 100 
m, lcf, 19, v.1989 (Aguillar, Solano). 
Depositories: INBio, USNM. 

The astigma group 

In the astigma group vein Rj arises distad of the 
origin of vein M, in the fore wing. Although the 
species included are rather similar in external 
appearance, they can often be distinguished by 
their wing markings. However, some intraspe- 
cific variation in wing pattern may cause confu- 
sion. The genitalia are distinctive. 

Oospila astigma (Warren) comb.n. 
(PI. 1:6, Figs 22, 97) 

Racheolopha astigma Warren, 1907: 206. Holo- 
type Cf, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; La Oroya, R[io] Inambari, 
Sfouth] E[ast] Peru 3100 ft, wet s[eason], 
Oct[ober] 1904 (G. Ockenden); Rothschild 
Bequest Bfritish] M[useum] 1939-1; Racheolo- 
pha astigma type cf Warr[en]; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15798 cf • [Examined.] 

Auophyllodes astigma (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
131. 

Racheolopha astigma (Warren); Prout, 1932: 54. 

Cf (PI- 1: 6, Fig. 22). Fore wing length 9-11 mm. 
Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings cream 
irrorated with brown, usually with inconspicuous 
dark brown perimeters. Fore wing: costa pale 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



25 



brown; brown line along termen; discal spot 
absent. Hind wing: with similar line along ter- 
men; discal spot absent. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface brown; lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 of male 
emarginated posteriorly. 

Genitalia o* (Fig. 97). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla absent; short projection 
from base of valva (arrowed in Fig. 97); sacculus 
extended, but not pointed. Anellar complex: 
completely surrounding aedeagus, not fused to 
valvae; with two posterior processes. Vinculum: 
ventral plate emarginated. Aedeagus: denticu- 
late at base; vesica lacking prominent cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. The wing markings of astigma (PI. 
1: 6 and Fig. 22) are similar to those of albi- 
punctulata, delacruzi and leucostigma (Figs 23, 
24, 25) but astigma lacks discal spots. O. astigma 
can be distinguished from miccularia by the paler 
colour of the markings and by the shape of the 
blotch at the apex of the fore wing (compare PI. 
1: 6, Figs 22 and 30). The male genitalia of 
astigma can be recognised by the form of the 
anellar complex; the small, pointed extension of 
the base of the valva; and the denticulate aedea- 
gus. 

DISTRIBUTION. Known only from Colombia and 
Peru. 

Material examined. Columbia: Meta: East 
Colombia, Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, 90" (Fassl). 
Peru: Puno: La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 m, 10" 
[holotype] wet season, x.1904 (Ockenden); 10\ 
wet season, ix.05 (Ockenden); lO\ wet season, 
xii.05 (Ockenden); La Union, Rio Huacamayo, 
Carabaya, 610 m, lo\ xi.1904 (Ockenden); 
Oconeque, Carabaya, 2100 m, ld\ dry season, 
vi.1904 (Ockenden); Tinguri, Carabaya, 1000 m, 
2cf, dry season, viii.1904 (Ockenden); 10" 
[paratype] wet season, i.05 (Ockenden). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila leucostigma (Warren) comb.n. 

(Figs 23, 98) 

Racheolopha leucostigma Warren, 1907: 207; 
Prout, 1932: 54. LECTOTYPE d\ here desig- 
nated, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. Label 
data: Type; Tinguri, Carabaya, 3400 ft, wet 



s[eason], Jan[uary] 1905. (G. Ockenden); 
Rothschild Bequest British] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Racheolopha leucostigma type d" Warr[en]; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15799 d". 
[Examined.] 
Auophyllodes leucostigma (Warren); Prout, 
1912: 131. 

Cf (Fig. 23). Fore wing length 8-10 mm. Frons 
and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings cream. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; subapical blotch triangu- 
lar, sometimes connected to blotch at tornus by 
line along termen; discal spot small, brown and 
inconspicuous. Hind wing: blotch at apex large, 
connected to blotch at tornus; blotch at tornus 
not large; discal spot white. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; with brush of long hair-like scales 
on tibia. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, 
distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
brown; lacking brushes of long hair-scales on 
sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from inter- 
segmental membrane of A2 and A3; sternum A8 
emarginated posteriorly. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 98). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: costa more strongly sclerotized towards 
apex; ampulla short, narrow, curved; sacculus 
developed, emarginated. Anellar complex: com- 
pletely surrounding aedeagus, approximately 
square in profile. Coremata absent. Vinculum: 
ventral plate usually V-shaped, sometimes emar- 
ginated. Aedeagus with large carina; vesica with 
large cornutus. 

Genitalia £. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. The cream wing markings of leu- 
costigma are usually larger than those of 
delacruzi (compare Figs 23 and 24), and in many 
specimens of delacruzi the wings lack these 
markings entirely. However, intraspecific varia- 
tion does occur in the extent of the markings in 
both species, so such patterns may be insufficient 
to identify the species. The presence of a small, 
white discal spot on the hind wing of leucostigma 
distinguishes it from astigma. Oospila leu- 
costigma can be distinguished from albipunctu- 
lata and miccularia by the apical blotch of the 
fore wing, which does not extend to the costa in 
leucostigma (compare PI. 1: 6, Figs 23, 25 and 
30). The wing markings of leucostigma are also 
paler than those of miccularia. Males of leu- 
costigma can be distinguished from all these 
species by the presence of a brush of long hair- 
like scales on the hind tibia. The male genitalia of 



26 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



leucostigma can be recognised by the shape of the 
ampulla and the anellar complex (Fig. 98). 

Distribution. Known only from Ecuador, 
Colombia and Peru. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Tungurahua: 
Or de Banosa Canelos, Id, ix-x.1984 (Mathan). 
Colombia: Meta: Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, 3d 
(Fassl). Peru: Puno: Tinguri, Carabaya, 1000 m, 
2d , dry season, viii.1904 (Ockenden); Id [lecto- 
type] wet season, i.1905 (Ockenden); Id" [para- 
lectotype] wet season, i.1905 (Ockenden); La 
Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 m, Id, dry season, 
viii.1904 (Ockenden); Id [paralectotype] wet 
season, hi. 1905 (Ockenden); Id, ix.05 (Ock- 
enden); Id, wet season, xi— xii.1905 (Ockenden); 
Id, wet season, i.1906 (Ockenden). South East 
Peru, Id- 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila delacruzi (Dognin) 

(Figs 24, 76, 99, 159) 

Comibaena delacruzi Dognin, 1898: 218. Holo- 
type d, in USNM. Type locality: ECUA- 
DOR. Label data: Environs de Loja Equateur 
1890; Dognin Collection; Comibaena 
Delacruzi type d D[o]g[ni]n; close to 
Comibaena callicula Druce pi 49 fig 19 [page] 
88; [?] de Comibaena invasata W[a]lk[er] [Bio- 
logia centrali-Americana] 49 fig 18; Type No. 
32757 U.S.N.M.; Genitalia slide No. MAC 
022. [Examined.] 

Oospila delacruzi (Dognin); Warren, 1904b: 505. 

Auophyllodes delacruzi (Dognin); Prout, 1912: 
131. 

[Racheolopha delacruzei (Dognin); Prout, 1932: 
54. Incorrect spelling of delacruzi.] 

Oospila restricta Warren, 1904b: 504; Prout, 
1912: 133. Holotype $, in BMNH. Type local- 
ity: PERU. Label data: Type; S[anto] Dom- 
ingo, Carabaya, 6500 ft. Decfember] 02. Wet 
s[eason] (G. Ockenden); Oospila restricta type 
$ Warr[en]; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15801 $. [Examined.] Syn.n. Racheolo- 
pha restricta (Warren); Prout, 1932: 54. 

d, $ (Fig. 24, 76). Fore wing length 8-11 mm. 
Antenna of female unknown. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches present or absent; where present, 
cream, with dark brown speckling. Fore wing: 
subapical blotch when present usually small, 
never extending to costa, sometimes connected 
to blotch at tornus by line along termen; blotch at 



tornus small, sometimes absent; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at apex absent 
or large and sometimes connected to blotch at 
tornus by line along termen; wings often 
unmarked except for brown band along termen; 
discal spot small, white. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface cream or 
brown; male lacking brushes of long hair-scales 
on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from 
intersegmental membrane of A2 and A3 of male; 
sternum A8 of male emarginated posteriorly. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 99). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus pointed; 
additional rounded lobe also present. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate not emarginated. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus with short carinate process; 
vesica lacking cornuti. 

Genitalia °. (Fig. 159). Sterigma absent. Bursa 
copulatrix: ductus bursae long, narrow, with long 
antrum, strongly sclerotized and striated below 
antrum; corpus bursae quite large, signum large. 
Anterior apophyses very short. 

Diagnosis. Although the wing markings of 
delacruzi are usually less extensive than those of 
leucostigma (compare Figs 23 and 24) intraspe- 
cific variation in both species means that this 
character is not always reliable. Males can be 
distinguished effectively by the absence of a 
brush of long hair-like scales on the hind tibia of 
delacruzi. O. delacruzi has a white discal spot on 
the hind wing, which is lacking in astigma (com- 
pare PI. 1: 6, Fig 22 and 24). When present, the 
cream wing markings of Oospila delacruzi differ 
from those of albipunctulata (compare Figs 24 
and 25): if present, the subapical blotch on the 
fore wing of delacruzi never extends to the costa, 
as it does in albipunctulata. 

The male genitalia of delacruzi can be recogn- 
ised by the shape of the valvae and shape of the 
anellar complex (Fig. 99). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. 

Material examined. Colombia: Meta: East 
Colombia, Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, Id, 1 ? 
(Fassl). Ecuador: Environs de Loja, Id [holo- 
type of delacruzi] 1890. Peru: Puno: La Oroya, 
Rio Inambari, 940 m, 2d, wet season, xii.05 
(Ockenden); Tinguri, Carabaya, 1000 m, 4d, 
1$, dry season, viii.1904 (Ockenden); Id, 
i.1905; Santo Domingo, Carabaya, 1800 m, 1$, 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



27 



iv.02 (Ockenden); Id", dry season, vi.02 (Ock- 
enden); 1$ [holotype of restricta] xii.02 (Ock- 
enden); Oconeque, Carabaya, 2100 m, 2d\ dry 
season, vii.1904 (Ockenden). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila albipunctulata (Prout) comb.n. 
(Figs 25, 100, 160) 

Racheolopha albipunctulata Prout, 1932: 54. 
Holotype G\ in BMNH. Type locality: 
COLOMBIA. Label data: Type; Muzo. 
Colombia 400-800 m Collection] Fassl; Seitz 
VIII p54 (1932); Racheolopha albipunctulata 
d type Prout; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] 
Mfuseum] 1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15797 d" • [Examined.] 

d, 9 (Pig- 25). Fore wing length 7-9 mm. 
Antenna of female unknown. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings cream, irrorated with brown, 
and with inconspicuous dark brown perimeters. 
Fore wing: costa pale brown; blotch at apex 
extending to costa and connected to blotch at 
tornus by narrow band along termen; blotch at 
tornus small; discal spot absent. Hind wing: 
blotch at apex extending half length of termen, 
connected to blotch at tornus by narrow band 
along termen; blotch at anal margin absent; 
discal spot small, white. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface cream, with 
pink and brown flecks; male lacking brushes of 
long hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of A2 and 
A3 of male; sternum A8 of male emarginated 
posteriorly. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 100). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus extended, 
with pointed apex; additional large digitate pro- 
cess with denticulate apex also present. Anellar 
complex: not completely surrounding aedeagus. 
Vinculum: ventral plate emarginated. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus: vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 160). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae short, 
narrow, antrum large; corpus bursae large; 
signum elongated. Anterior apophyses very 
short. 

Diagnosis. The wing markings of albipunctu- 
lata are similar to those of astigma, delacruzi, 



leucostigma and miccularia, and intraspecific 
variation within these species is such that exami- 
nation of the genitalia is desirable to confirm 
identification. Oospila albipunctulata bears a 
small white discal spot on the hind wing, while in 
astigma the discal spot is lacking and in mic- 
cularia the spot is lacking or small and reddish. 
The markings of albipunctulata are also paler 
than those of miccularia. The greater extent of 
the cream markings in albipunctulata distin- 
guishes it from delacruzi (compare Figs 24 and 
25). Oospila albipunctulata can be distinguished 
from leucostigma by the extent of the apical 
blotch of the fore wing (compare Figs 23 and 25). 
The male genitalia of albipunctulata can be 
recognised by shape of the valvae and the 
arrangement of small spines towards the apex of 
the valvae (Fig. 100). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Peru. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Heredia: 
Estacion Magasasay, Parque Nacional Braulio 
Carrillo, 200 m, 1 d, spring 1991 (Fernandez). 
Panama: Chiriqui: 3d [paratypes]. Columbia: 
Boyaca: Muzo, 400-800 m, Id [holotype] 
(Fassl); 4d [paratypes]; Id, 1$. Meta: Upper 
Rio Negro, 800 m, Id" (Fassl). Peru: Puno: Rio 
Huacamayo, Carabaya, 940 m, Id", vi.04 (Ock- 
enden). 

Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila rufilimes (Warren) comb.n. 
(Figs 26, 101, 161) 

Racheolopha rufilimes Warren, 1905: 319; Prout, 
1912: 129; 1932: 53. Holotype 9, in BMNH. 
Type locality: ECUADOR, label data: Type; 
R[iver] Cayapas, N[orth] W[est] Ecuador (Fl. 
& Mik.); Rothschild Bequest Bfritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; Racheolopha rufilimes type 
9 Warrfen]; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15788 9 [Examined.] 

Racheolopha extensata Warren, 1906: 423. Holo- 
type d, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. French Guiana, Maroni Rfiver], 
S[ain]t Jean, vii. 1904; Schaus Collfectionj; 
Type No. 9193 U.S.N.M. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Auophyllodes extensata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
131; 1932: 53. 

d, 9 (Pig- 26). Fore wing length 7-8 mm. 
Antenna of female simple. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings reddish brown. Fore wing: costa 
pale brown; blotch at apex long, narrow, con- 



28 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



nected to blotch at tornus by band along termen; 
discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at 
apex long, narrow, connected to blotch at tornus 
by band along termen; blotch at tornus extending 
along 1/3 of costal and anal margins; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface reddish brown; male 
lacking brushes of long hair-scales on sternum 
A2; elliptical sclerite absent from intersegmental 
membrane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 
strongly sclerotized in male, with bifurcate poste- 
rior extension. 

Genitalia d" (Fig. 101). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: apex cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus 
extended into robust, strongly sclerotized, api- 
cally serrated, process. Anellar complex: not 
surrounding aedeagus completely; highly distinc- 
tive with pair of long processes on each side. 
Coremata absent. Vinculum: ventral plate 
weakly emarginated. Aedeagus short, squat; 
vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 161). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae wide, 
with apical part not strongly sclerotized nor stri- 
ated, antrum absent; ductus more strongly scle- 
rotized towards corpus bursae; corpus bursae 
large; signum very small, reduced to single tooth. 
Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Usually Oospila rufilimes can be 
distinguished easily from arpata by wing mark- 
ings (compare Figs 26 and 27). In those speci- 
mens in which arpata has a small subapical 
blotch, this never extends to the costa as is the 
case with rufilimes. Females of these species may 
be distinguished further by the absence of anten- 
nal pectinations in rufilimes. O. rufilimes lacks 
the distinctive triangular, subapical blotch occur- 
ring on the fore wing of fimbripedata (compare 
PI. 1: 7, Figs 26 and 28). The male genitalia of 
rufilimes can be recognised by the very distinc- 
tive form of the anellar complex (Fig. 101). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
French Guiana, Guyana, Ecuador, Peru and 
Brazil. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, Id" [holotype of extensata] 
vii.1904; 8 5 (Le Moult). Guyana: Mazaruni- 
Potaro: Potaro, 1 $, ii.1908 (Klages). Ecuador: 
North West Ecuador, Cayapas, 1$ [holotype of 
rufilimes] (Fl, Mik.). BRAZIL: Amapa: Para, 2 



0\ Amazonas: Fonte Boa, 2d", v. 1906 (Klages); 
Teffe, 10\viii. 1935 (Mom). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila arpata (Schaus) comb.n. 
(Figs 27, 102, 162) 

Racheospila arpata Schaus, 1897: 161. Holotype 
9, in USNM. Type locality: BRAZIL. Label 
data: Rio Janeiro; Racheospila arpata Type 
Sch[au]s; Type No. 11898 U.S.N.M; Collec- 
tion Wm Schaus; Genitalia Slide No. MAC 
016. [Examined.] 

Auophyllodes arpata (Schaus); Prout, 1912: 131. 

Racheolopha arpata (Schaus); Prout, 1932: 54. 

Racheolopha similiplaga Warren, 1900: 137 
LECTOTYPE d, here designated, in BMNH 
Type locality: unknown. Label data: Type 
Racheolopha similiplaga type d Warr[en] 
Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15792 d\ 
[Examined.] Synonymized with Racheolopha 
arpata by Prout, 1932: 54. 

Auophyllodes similiplaga (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
131. 

Racheolopha mionophragma Prout, 1932: 53. 
Holotype d\ in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; Perou Huambo; M. de 
Mathan IV e Trim[estre] 1889; Ex Oberthur 
Collection] Britfish] Mus[eum] 1927-3; 
Racheolopha mionophragma d" type Prout; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15790 0\ 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

Racheolopha mionophragma subruta Prout, 
1932: 53. Holotype d, in BMNH. Type local- 
ity: PERU. Label data: Type; Chanchamayo 
Peru; not matched in collection] D[ogni]n; L. 
B. Prout Collection] Bfritish] M[useum] 
1939-643; Seitz VIII p53; Racheolopha miono- 
phragma subruta d" type Prout; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15802 d". [Examined.] 
Syn.n. 

Urucumia semicaudata Prout, 1933: 71 pi 8g. 
Holotype: $, in HECO. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Holotype; Esp[iritu] San[to]; 
t., 1910, L. B. Prout; 648; blank green label; 
Urucumia (?) semicaudata Prout in Seitz VIII; 
Auophylla (?) semicaudata Prout type; Type 
Lep: No 2520 Progonodes semicaudata Prout 
Hope Dept. Oxford. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

d\ $ (Fig. 27). Fore wing length 8-9 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dark 
green. Wings: dark green with brown marginal 
markings; discal spots small, brown. Fore wing: 
usually with a conspicuous, isolated, brown 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



29 



blotch at angle and sometimes a small subapical 
blotch; rarely, brown extending along termen 
towards apex. Hind wing with conspicuous, iso- 
lated, brown, apical blotch; rarely brown extend- 
ing entire length of termen. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales on 
male tibia. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, 
distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
cream; male lacking brushes of long hair-scales 
on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from 
intersegmental membrane of A2 and A3 of male; 
sternum A8 strongly sclerotized in male, with 
deep medial cleft. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 102). Uncus a flat bar. Socii 
not large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: with subapical cleft; ampulla absent; sac- 
culus extended into short, strongly sclerotized, 
digitate process. Anellar complex: reduced to a 
V-shaped juxta. Vinculum: ventral plate not 
emarginated; with short medial projection. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus short, squat; vesica lack- 
ing cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig- 162). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae strongly 
sclerotized not striated, antrum indistinct; corpus 
bursae large, elongated; signum small. Anterior 
apophyses very short. 

Diagnosis. In arpata the brown wing markings 
are usually restricted to the tornus of the fore 
wing and the apex of the hind wing, a pattern 
differing from that in rufilimes in which they 
extend along the wing margins. Occasionally 
there is a small subapical blotch in arpata, but 
this never extends to the costa as do the markings 
in rufilimes (compare Figs 26 and 27). Males of 
arpata can be distinguished from those of rufil- 
imes by the absence of a bifurcate posterior 
extension of sternum A8 (compare Figs 101 and 
102). Females can be distinguished by the pres- 
ence of pectinations on the antennae and by the 
narrower ductus bursae (compare Figs 161 and 
162). 

Oospila arpata can usually be distinguished 
from fimbripedata by the lesser extent of the 
brown markings (compare PI. 1: 7, Figs 27 and 
28) although in specimens where the markings of 
arpata are more extensive, this character is unre- 
liable. Males of these two species can be distin- 
guished by the different shapes of sternum A8 
and, in arpata, the absence of an ampulla and the 
extension of the sacculus (compare Figs 102 and 
103). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 



Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia 
and Brazil. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Alajuela: 
Estacion Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km S. Santa Cecilia, 
lCf, 1$, vii.1988 (Scoble, Brooks). Guanacaste: 
4 km W. Santa Cecilia, 250 m, 1$, 25. ii. 1985 
(Janzen, Hallwachs). Heredia: La Selva Biol. 
Sta. 40 m, Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, 1$, 
iv.1987 (Chavarria). Colombia: Boyaca: Muzo, 
400-800 m, lcf (Fassl). Cauca: N elle Grenade, 
Juntas, lcf, end 1897-1898 (Mathan). Meta: 
Upper Rio Negro, 400-800 m, 2 cf (Fassl). 
Ecuador: Pastaza: El Topo, Rio Pastaza, 1300 m, 
lcf (Palmer). Canelos [Riohacha] 640 m, lcf 
(Palmer). Peru: Amazonas: Huambo, lcf [holo- 
type of mionophragma] IV cr Trimestre 1889 
(Mathan). Junin: Chanchamayo, lcf [holotype 
of mionophragma subruta). La Merced, 610-910 
m, 2 ? (Watkins). Puno: La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, 940 m, 2cf, wet season, iii.05 (Ock- 
enden). La Union, Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, 
610 m, lcf. 19, 1 ?, wet season, xi.1904 (Ock- 
enden). Yahuarmayo, 370 m, lcf, iv.1912. 
Bolivia: Cochabamba: Charaplaya, 65°W 16°S, 
1300 m, lcf, vi.01 (Simons). Brazil: Rio Grande 
du Sol, 19. Parana: Castro, 890 m, 1 ? (Jones). 
Rio de Janeiro: Rio Janeiro, lcf [holotype of 
arpata]; Novo Friburgo, 19 [paralectotype of 
similiplaga}. Sao Paulo: Alto da Serra, Santos, 
800 m, lcf, 28.ii.1913 (Jones); lcf, 4.iii.l913 
(Jones); lcf, 5.iv.l913 (Jones). South East Bra- 
zil, lcf. Sao Paulo, 1 ?. Espiritu Santo 19 
[holotype of semicaudata]. Locality unknown: 
lcf [lectotype of similiplaga]. 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila fimbripedata (Warren) comb.n. 
(PI. 1:7, Figs 28, 103) 

Racheolopha fimbripedata Warren, 1907: 207; 
Prout, 1932: 53. Holotype cf , in BMNH. Type 
locality: PERU. Label data: Type; La Oroya, 
R[io] Inambari, S[outh] E[ast] Peru, 3100 ft, 
wet sfeason], March 05. (G. Ockenden); 
Racheospila fimbripedata type cf Warrfen]; 
Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15791cf 
[Examined.] 

Auophyllodes fimbripedata (Warren); Prout, 
1912: 131. 

Cf (PI. 1: 7, Fig. 28). Fore wing length 9-10 mm. 
Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings brown. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; subapical blotch small, 



30 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



triangular, connected to blotch at tornus by nar- 
row band along termen; blotch at tornus small; 
discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at 
apex connected to blotch at tornus by brown line 
along termen; blotch at anal margin absent; 
discal spot small, brown. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; with brush of long hair-like scales 
on tibia. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, 
distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
brown; sternum A2 without brushes of long 
hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of A2 and 
A3; sternum A8 strongly sclerotized, deeply 
emarginated posteriorly and with two posterior 
extensions with slightly expanded, rounded api- 
ces. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 103). Uncus not extended. 
Socii small. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: apex with distinctive field of short 
bristles; ampulla short, digitate, curved; sacculus 
not extended. Anellar complex: V-shaped, not 
completely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: 
ventral plate not emarginated, with short medial 
projection. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
lacking comutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila fimbripedata can be distin- 
guished from rufilimes by the presence of a 
triangular subapical blotch on the fore wings 
(compare PI. 1: 7, Figs 26 and 28). The greater 
extent of the brown markings usually distin- 
guishes fimbripedata from arpata (compare PI. 1: 
7, Figs 27 and 28) but the character is not always 
reliable. Males of these two species can be distin- 
guished by the shape of sternum A8, by the 
presence of an ampulla and by the absence of an 
extension of the sacculus in fimbripedata (com- 
pare Figs 102 and 103). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
Colombia and Peru. 

Material examined. Colombia: Risaralda: 
Siato, Rio Siato, Slopes of Choco, 1500 m, Id, 
ix.09. Peru: Puno: La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 
m, Id" [holotype] wet season, hi. 05 (Ockenden); 
lCf , ix.05 (Ockenden). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila zamaradaria Fletcher 

(Figs 29, 104) 

Oospila zamaradaria Fletcher, 1951: 103. Holo- 
type d\ in BNNH. Type locality: VENEZU- 
ELA. Label data: Type; Rancho Grande 
n[ea]r Maracay, Venezuela] May 24 1946; 



Oospila zamaradaria Fletcher Holotype d; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15725d- 
[Examined.] 
[Oospila zamaradensis Fletcher, 1951: figs 6,7; 
pi. 1, fig. 1. Incorrect spelling.] 

d" (Fig. 29). Fore wing length 8-9 mm. Frons and 
vertex black. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; markings black. Fore wing: markings 
in form of a broad black band covering distal half 
of wing; discal spot small, dark. Hind wing: 
markings in form of a broad black band along 
termen, band narrower than in fore wing; discal 
spot small dark, or absent. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
black; sternum A2 without brushes of long hair- 
scales; elliptical sclerite absent from interseg- 
mental membrane of A2 and A3; sternum A8 not 
strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 104). Uncus short, trun- 
cated. Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not 
reduced. Valva: costa extended as broad process 
with spinose apex; ampulla absent; sacculus not 
extended. Anellar complex: distinctive; com- 
pletely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral 
plate a narrow band; U-shaped. Aedeagus: long 
and narrow; vesica with short cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila zamaradaria can be distin- 
guished from atroviridis by the absence of a white 
discal spot on the hind wings of zamaradaria. In 
addition, atroviridis usually has separate blotches 
at the apex and the tornus, whereas zamaradaria 
has a continuous dark brown band along the 
termen (compare PI. 1: 17, Figs 29 and 59). The 
darker colour and greater extent of the wing 
markings distinguishes zamaradaria from Camilla 
(compare PI. 1: 5, Figs 21 and 29). The male 
genitalia can be recognised by the shape of the 
valvae, anellar complex and aedeagus (Fig. 104). 

Distribution. Known only from the transi- 
tional forest surrounding the Rancho Grande 
field station in the Henri Pittier National Park in 
northern Venezuela. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Aragua: Ran- 
cho Grande, near Maracay: Id [holotype] 
24.V.1946; Id [paratype] 16.vii.1946; 2<d 
[paratypes]; Id, vi.1991 (Cook). 
Depository: BMNH. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 

The miccularia group 

The miccularia group is a monophyletic group of 
three species defined by the presence of a field of 
large spines towards the apex of the dorsal 
(outer) surface of the male valva. As with the 
astigma group, vein K x of the fore wing arises 
distad of the origin of vein M v 

Oospila miccularia (Guenee) comb.n. 
(Figs 30, 105, 163) 

Racheospila miccularia Guenee, 1857: 374. Holo- 
type O", in BMNH. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: Ex Musaeo Ach. Gue- 
nee; Typicum Specimen; Racheospila mic- 
cularia Guenee sp G. no 599: specimen 
typicum; 3242 [fig.]; Ex Oberthiir Collection] 
Brit[ish] Musfeum] 1927-3; Geometridae geni- 
talia slide No. 15795cf • [Examined.] 

Racheolopha miccularia (Guenee); Warren, 
1900: 137; Prout, 1912: 129; 1932: 54. 

Racheolopha imula Dognin, 1911a: 23. LECTO- 
TYPE cf, here designated, in USNM. Type 
locality: FRENCH GUIANA. Label data: 
Saint-Jean du Maroni, French Guiana (Le 
Moult). [Examined.] Synonymized with 
Racheolopha miccularia by Prout, 1932: 54. 

Phorodesma sarptaria Moschler, 1881: 402. 
Holotype cT, depository unknown. Type local- 
ity: SURINAM. Label data: Surinam: Para- 
maribo. [Not examined.] Syn.n. 

Comibaena sarptaria (Moschler); Dognin, 1892: 
186. 

Auophylla sarptaria (Moschler); Warren, 1900: 
132. 

Auophyllodes sarptaria (Moschler); Prout, 1912: 
131. 

Racheolopha sarptaria (Moschler); Prout, 1932: 
54. 

O", 9 (Pig- 30). Fore wing length 6-9 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; cream irrorated with brown, with dark 
brown perimeters. Fore wing: costa pale brown; 
blotch at apex large, extending along costa, con- 
nected to blotch at tornus by narrow or broad 
band along termen; discal spot absent. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex long, narrow, connected to 
blotch at tornus by band along termen; blotch at 
anal margin absent; discal spot small, reddish 
brown, or absent. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface pink; elliptical 



31 



sclerite absent from intersegmental membrane of 
A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 emarginated 
posteriorly in male. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 105). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: deeply cleft; dorsal division narrowing 
strongly towards base and bearing large spines at 
apex; ampulla absent; sacculus extended into 
short process with serrated edge. Anellar com- 
plex: completely surrounding aedeagus; with 
large, medial, truncated projection and two 
pointed lateral processes. Vinculum: ventral 
plate V-shaped, with medial projection. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus: short; vesica lacking 
cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (F'g- l6 3). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae narrow, 
weakly sclerotized and not striated, antrum 
absent; corpus bursae large; signum very large. 
Anterior apophyses very short. 

Diagnosis. The wing markings of miccularia 
are darker than in albipunctulata, and in mic- 
cularia the discal spot on the hind wing is small 
and red, not white as in albipunctulata. The pale 
brown colour of the blotches and the absence of a 
discal spot on the fore wings distinguishes mic- 
cularia from ecuadorata. 

In miccularia the fore wing has more extensive 
markings than in astigma, delacruzi and leu- 
costigma. In miccularia the blotch at the apex of 
the fore wing extends to the costa (compare PI. 1: 
6, Figs 22, 23, 24, and 30). 

The male genitalia of miccularia are very simi- 
lar to those of euchlora but the shape of the valva 
and the position of the spines on the valva differ. 
The wing markings of these two species are 
distinctive (compare Figs 30 and 31). 

Distribution. Widely distributed in tropical 
South America. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Guanacaste: 
Estacion Pitilla, 9 km S. Santa Cecillia, 700 m, 
ld\ iii.1990 (Rios, Moraga, Blanco). French 
Guiana: Guyane: Cayenne, Id" [holotype of mic- 
cularia]; 3d"; Godebert Maroni, Id" {Le Moult); 
St. Jean du Maroni, 2d", 3$ {Le Moult); Id", vii. 
{Le Moult); ld\ viii. {Le Moult); St. Laurent du 
Maroni, 2d {Le Moult); Id, x. {Le Moult); 
Nouveau Chantier, 1°. [paralectotype of imula] 
ix. {Le Moult); Id [lectotype of imula] {Le 
Moult); lo" [paralectotype of imula] {Le Moult); 
1? (Rodway). Guyana: East Demerara-West 
Coast Berbice: Demerara River, Id, 2$, vii. 97. 
Mazaruni-Potaro: Potaro, 19, ii. 1908 {Klages); 
Kartabo, 1$, 27.vii.1925. Venezuela: 2d, 1905 



32 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



(Schaus). Colombia: Boyaca: Muzo, 400-800 m, 
Id (Fassl). Meta: Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, 3d" 
(Fassl)- Ecuador: Bulim, 50 m, 1$; Id, xii.00 
(Fl., M.). Peru: Amazonas: Huambo, Id, IV er 
Trimestre 1889 (Mathan). Puno: Chaquimayo, 
760-910 m, 3cf (Watkins): Id, viii-x.10 (Wat- 
kins); La Oroya, Rio Inambari, Carabaya, 940 
m, lcf, wet season, x.04 (Ockenden); 3d", wet 
season, hi. 05 (Ockenden); Id", dry season, v. 05 
(Ockenden); 4d\ wet season, xi— xii.1905 (Ock- 
enden); lcf, 1? wet season, xii.05 (Ockenden); 
South East Peru: Tinguri, Carabaya, 1000 m, 
lcf, dry season, viii.04 (Ockenden); 1$ (Ock- 
enden); Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, 940 m, lcf , 
dry season, vi.04, lcf (Ockenden). Bolivia: 
Saampioni, 800 m, lcf, 1$. Santa Cruz: Rio 
Suruta, 400 m, lcf. Brazil: Santa Cruz de la 
Sierra, 450 m, 2cf (Steinbach); River Yapacani, 
600 m, 6cf, 1$ (Steinbach). Amapa: Para, 3d" 
(Moss). Amazonas: Sao Paulo de Olivenca, 2d 
(Germain). Mato Grosso: Id, 1886 (Germain). 
Minas Geraes: Caraca, 1300 m, 1$, 2-4.i.l985 
(Becker). Para: Unt. Amaz. Taperinha, below 
Santarem, 1$, 21-31. viii. 27 (Zerny). Locality 
unknown: No data, Id [holotype of miccularia]. 
Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, USNM, 
VOBB. 



Oospila euchlora (Prout) comb.n. 

(Figs 31, 106) 

Racheolopha euchlora Prout, 1932: 54. Holotype 
d, in BMNH. Type locality: BRAZIL. Label 
data: Type; 39, 27, Burity, 30 miles N[orth] 
E[ast] of Cuyaba 2250 ft. l-14.vh.27 Mato 
Grosso C.L. Collenette; 515; On damp sand; 
Joicey Bequest. Brit[ish] Musfeum] 1934-120; 
Seitz VIII p54, fig 8g; Racheolopha euchlora 
d type Prout; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15800 d. [Examined.] 

d (Fig. 31). Fore wing length 8-9 mm. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; blotches absent; markings pink. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; narrow, pink band along 
termen; discal spot pink. Hind wing: narrow, 
pink band along termen; anterior discal spot 
small, white; posterior discal spot small, pink. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests 
dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder of 
dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 without 
brushes of long hair-scales; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of A2 and 
A3; sternum A8 not strongly sclerotized, simple. 



Genitalia d (Fig. 106). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; dorsal division not narrowing 
towards base, large spines on upper half; ampulla 
absent; sacculus extended into short pointed pro- 
cess. Anellar complex: completely surrounding 
aedeagus; with medial projection and two 
pointed lateral processes. Vinculum: ventral 
plate V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: 
relatively short; vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila euchlora may be distin- 
guished from restricta by the colour of the band 
along the termen: this is pink in euchlora and 
brown in restricta. In addition, restricta lacks a 
second, pink discal spot on the hind wing. The 
dorsal division of the valva of euchlora does not 
narrow towards the base as in miccularia, and the 
spines are not confined to the apex. The wing 
markings of these two species are distinct (com- 
pare Figs 30 and 31). 

Distribution. The only specimen was collected 
in the Mato Grosso province of Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Mato Grosso: 30 
miles North East of Cuyaba, Burity, 690 m. Id 
[holotype] l-14.vii.27 (Collenette). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila ecuadorata (Dognin) comb.n. 
(PI. 1:8, Figs 32, 107) 

Comibaena ecuadorata Dognin, 1892: 186. LEC- 
TOTYPE d, here designated, in USNM. 
Type locality: ECUADOR. Label data: 
Zamora Equateur; Comibaena ecuadorata 
type d [Dognin]; [pas des Druce un] Britfish] 
M[useum] Mar[ch] 92; dans sarptaria 
1' abdomen [?]; Dognin Collection; Type No. 
32756 U.S.N.M; Genitalia Slide By MAC 
57760 USNM. [Examined.] 

Auophyllodes ecuadorata (Dognin); Prout, 1912: 
131. 

Racheolopha sarptaria ecuadorata (Dognin); 
Prout, 1932: 54. 

Racheolopha sarptaria ruboris Prout, 1932: 54. 
LECTOTYPE d, here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: COLOMBIA. Label data: 
Muzo, Colombia 400-800 m Collection] Fassl; 
Racheolopha sarptaria ruboris type d Prout. 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

d (PI. 1: 8, Fig. 32). Fore wing length 7-9 mm. 
Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings orange- 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



33 



brown with brown irrorations and reddish perim- 
eters. Fore wing: costa pale brown; blotches at 
apex and tornus joined by narrower band along 
termen; discal spot small, red-brown. Hind wing: 
band along termen, extending along distal third 
of costal and anal margins; blotch at anal margin 
absent; discal spot small, red-brown. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface pink; sternum A2 without brushes of long 
hair-scales; elliptical sclerite absent from inter- 
segmental membrane of A2 and A3; sternum A8 
emarginated posteriorly. 

Genitalia d" (Fig. 107). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: with subapical cleft; dorsal division with 
numerous spines; ampulla absent; sacculus 
extended into short, pointed process; distinctive, 
long process arising from base of valva at point 
where anellar complex merges. Anellar complex: 
surrounding aedeagus completely, with pair of 
lateral extensions. Vinculum: ventral plate 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus short, 
squat; vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia 9- Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila ecuadorata can be distin- 
guished from miccularia and albipunctulata by 
the presence of reddish discal spots on both fore 
and hind wings and by the greater intensity of red 
irrorations on the blotches. The male genitalia of 
ecuadorata can be recognised by the presence of 
long processes at the base of the valvae and 
spines on their dorsal divisions. 

Distribution. Distributed in Central America 
and northern and central areas of South 
America. 

Material examined. Panama: Chiriqui: 
Chiriqui, lcf • Colombia: Boyaca: Muzo, 400-800 
m, lcf [lectotype of ruboris] (Fassl); 30" (Fassl); 
Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, 2 cf [paralectotypes of 
ruboris](Fassl); Muzo, River Cantinero, 400 m, 
Id" (Fassl). Ecuador: Pastaza: El Topo, Rio 
Pastaza, 1300 m, lcf (Palmer). Zamora- 
Chinchipe: Zamora, lcf [lectotype of ecuado- 
rata]; 6cf [paralectotypes of ecuadorata]. Peru: 
Amazonas: Huambo, 2cf , IV cr Trimestre 1889 
(Mathan). Puno: Oconeque, Carabaya, 2100 m, 
lcf, dry season, vii.1904 (Ockenden); Carabaya: 
Tinguri, 1000 m, 3cf , dry season, viii.1904 (Ock- 
enden); 3cf, wet season, i. 1905 (Ockenden); 
Carabaya: Rio Huacamayo, 940 m, 3cf, dry 
season, vi.04 (Ockenden); La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, 940 m, 2cf, dry season, ix.04 (Ock- 



enden); lcf, wet season, x.04 (Ockenden); 2cf, 
hi. 05 (Ockenden); lcf, wet season, xi— xii.1905 
(Ockenden); South East Peru, Santo Domingo, 
1800 m, lcf, xi.1904 (Ockenden). Bolivia: Salam- 
pioni, 600 m, 2cf, dry season, viii.01 (Simons). 
La Paz: Chimate, 760 m, lcf, ix.00 (Simons); 
San Ernesto, 68°W 15°S, 1000 m, 6cf , viii.-ix.00 
(Simons). Santa Cruz: Rio Sunta, 400 m, lcf, v. 
(Steinbach). Brazil: Amazonas: Upper Amazon: 
Sao Paulo de Oliven^a, lcf, i. 1932 (Wucherpfen- 
nig). Para: Unt. Amaz. Taperinha, below San- 
tarem, lcf; lcf , 10.vi.27 (Zerny). 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

The athena group 

The athena group includes four species, two of 
which were formerly assigned to Progonodes. 
The anellar complex is reduced to just a flat 
plate. 

Oospila athena (Druce) comb.n. 
(PI. 1:9, Figs 33, 108, 164) 

Racheospila athena Druce, 1892: 89. Holotype, 
Cf in MNHU. Type locality: PANAMA. Label 
data: Panama: Chiriqui (Trotsch) (mus[eum] 
Stau[dinger]). [Not examined.] 

Progonodes athena (Druce); Prout, 1912: 135. 

Cf , 9 (PI. 1: 9, Fig. 33). Fore wing length 17-19 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons 
green, vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: dark 
green and white in about equal proportions, 
strong white patch at apex of both wings; discal 
spots absent. Fore wing: costa pale brown. Hind 
wing: white also conspicuous basally. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface cream; sternum A2 of male without 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 
strongly sclerotized in male, deeply emarginated 
posteriorly, and with two curved, posterior 
extensions with serrated margins. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 108). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: costa extended into a long curved process; 
ampulla absent; sacculus lobed. Anellar complex 
composed of a flat V-shaped sclerite, not sur- 
rounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
broad, weakly emarginated. Aedeagus short; 
vesica lacking cornutus. 



34 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Genitalia $ (Fig. 164). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
fairly narrow, antrum absent; weakly sclerotized 
and not striated; corpus bursae large; signum 
very small. Anterior apophyses very short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila athena can be distinguished 
from lactecincta, nivetacta and sporadata by the 
presence of large white apical patches on the 
wings (compare PI. 1: 9 and 21, Figs 33, 35, 36 
and 74). The absence of large, brown discal spots 
on the fore and hind wings distinguishes athena 
from nivetacta (compare PI. 1:9 and 21, Figs 33 
and 74). The male genitalia of athena can be 
recognised from the unusual shape of the valvae 
and the anellar complex (Fig. 108). The shape of 
sternum A8 in the male is also distinctive (Fig. 
108). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
Panama, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, 
Ecuador and Peru. 

Material examined. Panama: 1$, no other 
data. Costa Rica: Cartago: Cachi, 1?; 1$ (Under- 
wood); Sitio, 1200 m, 3$ (Schaus); 1$; Tuis, 1$ 
(Schaus); 1$ (Underwood). Puntarenas: Finca 
Cafrosa, Estacion Las Mellitzas Parque Nacional 
Amistad, 1300 m, 1$, xi.1989 (Ramirez, Mora); 
35 km NE of San Vito at Las Alturas Field 
Station, 1500 m, Id, 9.vii.l992, 1$, 2.vi.l992 
(Sourakov), 1$, 24.vi.1992 (Snyder), 2d" 
25, 27. vi. 1992 (Snyder, Andrei); Monte Verde, 
1$, 3.ix.l988 (Covell). Venezuela: Tachira Rio 
Frio, 600 m, ld\ 2.x. 1981 (Fernandez, Clavijo, 
Chacon). Colombia: Boyaca: Muzo, 400-600 m, 
1$ (Fassl); Id (Pratt). Ecuador: Zamora- 
Chinchipe: 3 km (air) SE of Zamora, ca. 1200 m, 
lCf, 1-3. vi. 1986 (McKamay). Zamora: E. Cum- 
baratza, 800-900 m, 1$, 21.xi.1970 (Pena). 
Morona-Santiago: Sevilla Don Bosco, 1070 m, 
7d\ 8-11. v. 1986 (McKamay). Peru: Cajamarca: 
Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco, Id" (Boettger); 
North Peru: River Tabaconas, 1800 m, 1?, 1912 
(Pratt, Pratt). Junin: Chanchamayo, lcf, 1898 
(Schuncke); Central Peru: La Merced, 910-1400 
m, 1$, xi-xii.19 (Watkins). Loreto: North Peru: 
Rentema Falls, Upper Maranon, 300 m, 1$ 
(Pratt, Pratt). Pasco: Oxapampa, 2000 m, 1$. 
Puno: Carabayo: La Union, Rio Huacamayo, 
610 m, 3d", 1$, 1?, wet season, xi-xii.1904 
(Ockenden). Cuzco: Cuzco, 8d\ 1$, i,ii,iii.l952 
(Waylkowski, Waylsowski). 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, INBio, 
UCVM. 



Oospila holochroa (Prout) comb.n. 
(Figs 34, 109) 

Progonodes holochroa Prout, 1912: 417. Holo- 
type d, in BMNH. Type locality: PANAMA. 
Label data: Type; Chiriqui S.K.B; L.B. Prout 
Collection] B[ritish] Mfuseum] 1939-643; 
Progonodes holochroa Prout N.Z. p. 417 cf 
type; [?]; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15768 d. [Examined.] 

Progonodes stagonata holochroa Prout, 1933: 60. 

Racheospila delicatescens Dyar, 1914: 229. Holo- 
type $, in USNM. Type locality: PANAMA. 
Label data: Panama: Panama Canal Zone, 
Porto Bello, hi. 1911 (Busck); Type No. 16056 
U.S.N.M. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila delicatescens (Dyar); Prout, 1932: 56. 

d (Fig. 34). Fore wing length 15 mm. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; blotches absent; markings pale 
brown. Fore wing: costa pale brown; termen with 
beige fringe and brown line proximal of fringe 
interrupted by small white dots where veins meet 
termen; discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: as 
fore wing but anterior discal spot large, white 
and posterior discal spot small, indistinct and 
white. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of 
long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 without 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3; sternum A8 strongly 
sclerotized with deep medial division, extended 
into two processes posteriorly. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 109). Uncus with two short 
apical processes. Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, 
not reduced. Valva: ampulla absent; sacculus a 
blunt short lobe; rest of valva narrow. Anellar 
complex: a flat plate, not completely surrounding 
aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate broad, emar- 
ginated with medial projection. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus: vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila holochroa can be distin- 
guished from lacteguttata by the presence of two 
white discal spots on the hind wings and by the 
absence of a proximal pair of spurs on the hind 
tibia. The presence of a brown discal spot on the 
fore wings distinguishes Oospila holochroa from 
immaculata (compare Figs 34 and 61). The male 
genitalia of holochroa can be recognised by the 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



35 



unusual shape of the uncus and the valvae (Fig. 
109). 

Distribution. Only a single specimen was 
examined, from Chiriqui in Panama. 

Material examined. Panama: Chiriqui: Id" 
[holotype] 

Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila lactecincta (Warren) 

(Figs 35, 110, 165) 

Racheolopha lactecincta Warren, 1909: 85. LEC- 
TOTYPE d", here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: BRAZIL. Label data: Fonte 
Boa, Upp[er] Amazon, July 1907 (S.M. 
Klages); Racheolopha lactecincta type o" War- 
den]; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] Mfuseum] 
1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15732 
0". [Examined.] 

Oospila lactecincta (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 
1933: 59. 

d\ 9 (Fig- 35). Fore wing length 13-16 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
green. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface white. Wings: mainly white with dark 
green markings. Fore wing: costa pale brown 
proximally, green distally and along termen; 
large green triangular patch, variously mottled 
with white, in wing centre; blotches absent; discal 
spot small, dark brown. Hind wing: as fore wing 
but green triangular patch much weaker and 
diffuse; discal spot in form of a white streak. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests 
dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder of 
dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 of male with- 
out brushes of long hair-scales; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of A2 and 
A3 of male; sternum A8 of male with emargin- 
ated posteriorly. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 110). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: short, constricted subapically; apex 
rounded, denticulate, not divided; ampulla 
absent; sacculus not extended. Anellar complex: 
completely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: 
ventral plate broad, V-shaped. Coremata absent. 
Aedeagus: vesica with two large cornuti. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig- 165). Ostium: sterigma ellip- 
tical, with posterior edge emarginated. Bursa 
copulatrix: ductus bursae long, with large 
antrum, strongly sclerotized and striated below 
antrum; corpus bursae large, approximately 



spherical; signum small. Anterior apophyses 
short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila lactecincta can be distin- 
guished from athena and sporadata by the posi- 
tion of solid areas of white on the fore wings and 
the relatively discrete triangular green patch on 
the fore wing (compare PI. 1:9, Figs 33, 35 and 
36). The male genitalia of lactecincta can be 
recognised by the shape of the valvae (Fig. 110). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
lowland Peru and the Amazonas region of Brazil. 

Material examined. Peru: Loreto: North 
Peru: Rentema Falls, Upper Maranon, 300 m, 
19 {Pratt, Pratt). Brazil: Amazonas: Fonte Boa, 
Upper Amazon, Id [lectotype] vii.1907 
(Klages); 1$ [paralectotype] v. 1906 (Klages); 1$ 
[paralectotype] vii.1906 (Klages); 2$, viii.1907. 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila sporadata (Warren) 
(Figs 36, 111, 166) 

Racheolopha sporadata Warren, 1906: 426. 
Holotype d\ in USNM. Type locality: 
FRENCH GUIANA. French Guiana: Maroni, 
S[ain]t Jean, iii.1904; Type No. 9199 
U.S.N. M. [Examined.] 

Oospila sporadata (Warren); Prout, 1933: 59. 

Progonodes curvimargo Herbulot, 1991: 110. 
Holotype d\ in HERB. Type locality: Ecua- 
dor. Label data: Ecuador Km 17 de la route 
Limon Mendez 900 m - 12 et 13. i. 1975 C. 
Herbulot; Progonodes curvimargo H[e]rb[u- 
]l[o]t Holotype. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

d\ $ (Fig. 36). Fore wing length 14-20 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
green. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface white. Wings: mottled white and green, 
small patches of solid green in some areas; 
blotches absent. Fore wing: costa pale brown; 
green speckling concentrated to form mainly 
green areas along termen and at centre of wings; 
discal spot absent. Hind wing: similar to fore 
wing, except costa not brown; discal spot absent. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales present on tibia of male. Abdo- 
men: basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 
of male without brushes of long hair-scales; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 
strongly sclerotized in male with short bifurcate 
apical extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 111). Uncus short, pointed. 



36 



Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla short, robust, with trun- 
cated, denticulate apex; sacculus extended into 
long, strongly sclerotized, pointed process. Anel- 
lar complex: completely surrounding aedeagus; 
with long anterior extension. Vinculum: ventral 
plate large, emarginated. Coremata absent. 
Aedeagus: vesica with forked cornutus; strongly 
sclerotized and denticulate at phallotreme. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 166). Ostium: weakly sclero- 
tized peripherally, with shallow membranous 
pocket on each side; sterigma absent. Bursa 
copulatrix: ductus bursae and antrum indistinct, 
narrow immediately below ostium, widening dis- 
tally, strongly sclerotized and striated; bursa 
copulatrix large; signum small. Anterior apophy- 
ses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila sporadata can be distin- 
guished from athena and lactecincta by the more 
speckled appearance of the wing markings, 
which lack the solid patches of green and white 
found in the others (compare PI. 1: 9, Figs 33, 35 
and 36). The male genitalia can be recognised by 
the short, robust ampulla, the long anterior 
extension of the anellar complex and the denticu- 
late aedeagus (Fig. 111). 

Distribution. Distributed widely in tropical 
South America. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, 7cf, 1$ (Le Moult); lcf, x. 
(Le Moult); 4cf , 1$ (Le Moult); lcf [holotype of 
sporadata] 2cf, 2$; Nouveau Chantier, lcf, 1$ 
(Le Moult). Route de l'Est, 1$, 12. xi. 1980 
(Bleuzen). Surinam: Marowijne: Aroewarwa 
Creek, Maroewym valley, lcf, iv.05 (Klages): 
lcf, v.05 (Klages). Guyana: Mazaruni-Potaro: 
Omai, lcf, 1?. Bartica: Kartabo, 1$, 6.vi.l920 
(New York Zoological Society). Colombia: Ama- 
zonas: Leticia, lcf [paratype of curvimargo] 
viii.1977 (Moinier). Ecuador: Pasatza: Sarayacu, 
lcf (Buckley). 17 km de La route Limon, 900 m, 
lcf [holotype of curvimargo] 12-13. i. 1975 (Her- 
bulot); 1$ [paratype of curvimargo] (Herbulot). 
Peru: Junin: River Chuchurras, River Palcazu, 
320 m, lcf (Hoffmann). Puno: Yahuarmayo, 610 
m, lcf, iv.1912. Brazil: Amapa: Para, lcf, 1$ 
(Moss). Amazonas: Fonte Boa, 7cf, 2$, vii.06 
(Klages); lcf, ix.06 (Klages); lcf, 1?, vii.07 
(Klages); lcf, viii.06 (Klages); lcf, xi.06 
(Klages). 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, HERB, 
USNM. 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 

The includaria group 

The includaria group includes two distinctively 
marked species (includaria and leucothalera) (PI. 
1: 10, Figs 37, 38), formerly assigned to the genus 
Auophylla. The male of leucothalera is unknown 
so the male genitalia cannot be compared with 
those of includaria and the monophyly of the 
group requires confirmation. 

Oospila includaria (Herrich-Schaffer) 
comb.n. 

(PI. 1: 10, Figs 37, 112, 167) 

Thalera includaria Herrich-Schaffer, 1855, fig. 
341; 1856: 36, 62, 82. Holotype cf, MNHU. 
Type locality: GUATEMALA. [Not exam- 
ined.] 

Phorodesma (?) inclusaria Guenee, 1857: 371. 
[Incorrect spelling.] 

Comibaena inclusaria (Guenee); Druce, 1892: 
88. 

Comibaena (?) inclusaria (Guenee); Walker, 
1861: 570. 

Auophylla includaria (Herrich-Schaffer); War- 
ren, 1897: 423-424; Prout, 1912: 130; 1932: 52. 

Comibaena magnifica Schaus, 1901: 252. LEC- 
TOTYPE cf, here designated, in USNM. 
Type locality: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo. [Exam- 
ined.] Syn.n. 

Auophylla magnifica (Schaus); Prout, 1912: 130; 
1932: 52. 

Auophylla multiplagiata Warren, 1897: 424; 
Prout, 1912: 130; 1932: 52. Holotype cf, in 
BMNH. Type locality: PARAGUAY. Label 
data: Paraguay Dr Bohls; Rothschild Bequest 
Bfritish] M[useum] 1939-1; Auophylla multi- 
plagiata type cf Warr[en]; Geometridae geni- 
talia slide No. 15806 cf ■ [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Auophylla basiplaga Warren, 1907, 201; Prout, 
1912, 130; 1932: 52. Holotype cf , in BMNH. 
Type locality: PARAGUAY. Label data: 
Type; Sapucay, Paraguay, 9.vii.02 (W. Fos- 
ter); Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 
1939-1; Oospila basiplaga type cf Warr[en]; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15805 cf. 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

Cf , $ (PI. 1: 10, Fig. 37). Fore wing length 9-14 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green and cream with brown detail; cream 
areas represent blotches, varying significantly in 
area. Fore wing: costa brown; often brown sub- 
marginal line present; green areas either much 
more extensive than cream areas (e.g. as in Fig. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



37 



37), or approximately equalling cream areas in 
extent; discal spot brown. Hind wing: extent of 
markings approximately as in fore wing; discal 
spot absent. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 
of male without brushes of long hair-scales; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 not 
strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 112). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; apex with row of denticles; ampulla 
absent; sacculus extended into strongly sclero- 
tized, pointed process; additional, pointed sub- 
apical extension. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
with short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 167). Ostium: with a shallow 
pocket on each side; sterigma approximately 
elliptical. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
wide, weakly sclerotized and not striated, antrum 
absent; corpus bursae large; signum quite large. 
Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. The wing markings of Oospila inclu- 
daria vary considerably. Specimens where cream 
markings are extensive are rather similar to those 
of obeliscata. However, includaria is smaller than 
obeliscata and has smaller discal spots (compare 
PI. 1: 10 and 15, Figs 37 and 53). The presence of 
a white blotch at the base of the wings and the 
absence of a constriction of the anterior of the 
green area at the middle of the fore wing distin- 
guishes includaria from leucothalera (compare PI. 
1: 10, Figs 37 and 38). The male genitalia of 
includaria can be recognised by the extension of 
the middle part of the valva into a pointed 
process (Fig. 112). 

Distribution. Material has been examined 
from Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and 
Brazil. 

Material examined. Peru: Puno: Carabaya: 
La Union, Rio Huacamayo, 610 m, Id", wet 
season, xii.1904 (Ockenden). Argentina: Sierra 
de la Ramada, 650 m, Id" (Schreiter); Ocampo, 
El Chaco, Id, i.1906 (Venturi). Misiones: Haut 
Parana, San Ignacio Missions, 4d. Salta: North 
Argentina: Salta, 1$, ii.05 (Steinbach). Tucu- 
man: Id, 1$, 1? (Steinbach); 1 d, 1$, 1918, 
ii.1949 (Foerster); Ciudad Tucuman, 1$, iii.1903 
(Monetti); Dept. Ledesma, Parque Nacional Cal- 
lilegua, 2000-2500 m, 11-13 km on dirt-track/ 



footpath, upland mesic forest, Id, 14. ii. 1991 
{Johnson et al.); Parque Nacional Callilegua, 
near entrance, 5.5-7.5 km W of Rt34, 1600 m, 
mesic forest along river Id, 14. ii. 1991 (Johnson 
etal.). Jujuy. Jujuy, 17d, 9$, xii.1944, iv.1948, 
ii,iii.l949, ii,iii,xii.l950, ii. 1951 (Sperry, Sperry 
Coll.); Jujuy, 6d, 1$, iv,vi,xi.l948, iii.1949, 
ii,iii,xii.l950, ii. 1951 (Foerster). Paraguay: Para- 
guari: Sapucay, Id [holotype of basiplaga] 
9.vii.02 (Foster); 1$, 2.xi.03 (Foster); Id, 
19.vi.03 (Foster); 1§, 15.xi.03 (Foster); 1$, 
30.xi.04; Id [holotype of multiplagiata] (Bohls). 
Bolivia: La Paz: El Choro, Tungas de La Paz, 
900 m, Id, 7-8.U976 (Pena). Brazil: Brazilia, 
Id (Dohrm); Rio Grande do Sul, 2d (IStgr/). 
Bahia: Iguassu, 1$. Mato Grosso: Id, 1886 
(Germain); Id, 1886. Minas Geraes: Uberaba, 
Id, 1$ (Le Moult). Parana: Castro, 890 m, Id, 
19 (Jones). Sao Paulo: Sao Paulo, 700 m, Id 
[lectotype of magnifica] 1$; South East Brazil: 
Sao Paulo, 700 m, 19 (Jones). Santa Catarina: 
Blumenau, Id, 1$, 26.iv.29 (Schade); Rio Ver- 
mehlo, 19, i. 1937 (Hoffmann); Jaragua do Sul, 
19, xi.1934 (Hoffmann); Neuvo Teutonia, 4d, 
iv.1953, Id, v.1953, 19, 15.ii.1953 (Plaumann) 
(Sperry Collection). Locality unknown: Guerica 
?, 19. 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila leucothalera (Prout) comb.n. 

(Figs 38, 168) 

Auophylla leucothalera Prout, 1932: 52. Holo- 
type 9, in BMNH. Type locality: BRAZIL. 
Label data: Bresil Caraca P. Germain 2° 
Semestre 1884; Ex. Oberthur Collection] Brit- 
fish] Musfeum] 1927-3; Auophylla leucothal- 
era 9 type Prout; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15807 9. [Examined.] 

9 (Fig. 38). Fore wing length 9-10 mm. Antenna 
of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex brown. 
Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal surface 
dark green. Wings: dark green patches, and 
cream with brown detail. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; termen with broken brown line; subtrian- 
gular green patch at wing base, larger green area 
in centre of wing sometimes separated into two 
patches; discal spot a short brown line. Hind 
wing: single green patch; discal spot absent. Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface cream. 

Genitalia d- Unknown. 

Genitalia 9 ( Fi g- I 68 )- Ostium: sterigma 



38 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



large, crescent-shaped, with shallow pocket on 
each side. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae short, 
wide, with large antrum, strongly sclerotized and 
striated below antrum; corpus bursae large; 
signum absent. Anterior apophyses relatively 
long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila leucothalera lacks the white 
blotch at the base of the wing of includaria and 
the shape of the green marking at the centre of 
the fore wing differs (compare PI. 1: 10, Figs 37 
and 38). 

Distribution. Known only from southern areas 
of Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Queluz, 1$ 
[paratype] {Germain). Minas Geraes: Caraca, 1°. 
[holotype] 2° Semestre 1884 {Germain). Sao 
Paulo: Alto de Serra, 1$ [paratype] xi.1922 
{Spitz); Serra do Mar, 1$, iv.1927 {Wucherpfen- 
nig). 

Depository: BMNH. 

The albicoma group 

The monophyly of the albicoma group, which 
includes four species, is based on the form of the 
male anellar complex. The transtilla and juxta 
are fused to form a sclerite completely surround- 
ing and supporting the aedeagus. The anellar 
complex is distinctive and lacks any processes or 
extensions. 

Oospila albicoma (Felder & Rogenhofer) 

The species includes two subspecies with identi- 
cal male genitalia, but with distinctive wing 
markings. One of these, albicoma nasuta, is 
confined to Trinidad. 

Oospila albicoma albicoma (Felder & 
Rogenhofer) 

(PI. 1: 11, Figs 39, 113, 169) 

Racheospila albicoma Felder & Rogenhofer, 
1875: pi 127, fig. 22. Holotype d\ in BMNH. 
Type locality: AMAZON AS. Label data: 
Holotype; 146; Novara CXXVII p 22, 
Racheospila albicoma Amaz[onas] m[ale]. 
Rothschild Bequest Bfritish] M[useum] 
1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15713 
d". [Abdomen incorrectly associated, see 
Remark.] [Examined.] 

Oospila albicoma (Felder & Rogenhofer); War- 
ren, 1900: 136; Prout, 1912: 133; 1933: 57. 

Oospila minorata Warren, 1909: 83. LECTO- 
TYPE d\ here designated, in BMNH. Type 



locality: BRAZIL. Label data: Type; Fonte 
Boa, Upp[er] Amazonas, May 1906. (S.M. 
Klages); Oospila minorata type cf Warr[en]; 
Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 157150". Syn- 
onymized with albicoma by Prout, 1933: 57. 
[Examined.] 
Oospila deliciosa Thierry-Mieg, 1916: 42. Prout, 
1933: 57. LECTOTYPE d\ here designated, 
in MNHN. Type locality: FRENCH GUI- 
ANA. Label data: Type; Guyane Franchise 
St-Jean du Maroni Collection Le Moult; 1917 
Collection]. P. Thierry-Mieg Museum Paris; 
Oospila deliciosa t.m. misc. ent., XXIII, 
nol0-ll, p[4]2, 1916. type original. [Exam- 
ined.] Syn.n. 

0\ 9 (PI. 1: 11, Fig. 39). Fore wing length 14-19 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; blotches cream heavily or lightly 
irrorated with pale brown, with dark brown 
perimeters. Fore wing: costa pale brown; blotch 
at apex large, extending along costa, not con- 
nected to blotch at tornus; blotch at tornus large, 
extending to cover discal spot; discal spot small, 
dark brown. Hind wing with blotches at apex and 
tornus large, occasionally connected by band 
along termen; blotch at anal margin small, nar- 
row; discal spot small, white. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
cream; sternum A2 of male with brushes of long 
hair-scales present; elliptical sclerite in interseg- 
mental membrane between segment A2 and A3 
of male present; sternum A8 of male emargin- 
ated posteriorly. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 113). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: deeply cleft; apex of dorsal division 
irregular; ampulla narrow, digitate, denticulate 
towards apex; sacculus extended into short, blunt 
process. Anellar complex completely surround- 
ing aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate V-shaped. 
Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica with long, 
narrow cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 169). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
antrum large; strongly sclerotized and striated 
below antrum; corpus bursae fairly small, 
approximately spherical; signum quite large. 
Anterior apophyses very short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila albicoma albicoma can be 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



39 



distinguished from most other species with cream 
blotches by the large size of the blotch at the 
tornus of the fore wing, which extends to cover 
the discal spot. The shape of this blotch also 
differs from that in depressa and longiplaga 
(compare PI. 1: 11 and 20, and Figs 39, 66, 72). 

Oospila albicoma albicoma is smaller than 
concinna, and the male bears brushes of long 
hair-scales on sternum A2 and a small elliptical 
sclerite on the intersegmental membrane 
between sternum A2 and A3; these are absent 
from concinna. The shape of the distal end of the 
valva distinguishes males; also the aedeagus of 
albicoma albicoma bears a short cornutus, which 
is absent from concinna (compare Figs 113 and 
114). In the female, the sterigma is absent from 
albicoma albicoma but present in concinna (com- 
pare Figs 169 and 170). 

The shape of the blotch at the apex of the fore 
wing distinguishes albicoma albicoma from 
lunicincta. This blotch extends along the costa in 
albicoma albicoma but not in lunicincta (compare 
PI. 1: 11, Figs 39 and 67). 

Oospila albicoma albicoma can be distin- 
guished from albicoma nasuta by the larger size 
of the blotch at the tornus of the fore wing and 
also by the absence of a short digitate extension 
of this blotch in albicoma albicoma (compare PI. 
1: 11, Figs 39 and 40). 

Distribution. Widely distributed in tropical 
South America and in Central America south of 
Costa Rica. 

Remark. The holotype has an incorrectly asso- 
ciated abdomen (the genitalia of this abdomen 
belong to a species of Semiothisa Hiibner 
(Geometridae: Ennominae). 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Alajuela: 
Finca San Gabriel, 2 km South West of Dos 
Rios, 630 m, lc?, 8.H.1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 
lcf, 5. v. 1984 (Janzen, Hallwachs); Finca Cam- 
pana, 5 km North West Dos Rios, 750 m, lcf, 
21. hi. 1985 (Janzen, Hallwachs); Finca San Gab- 
riel, 630 m, 16 km East of Quebrada Grande, 
3cf, 1$; Estacion Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km South of 
Santo Cecilia, 1$, i.1988 (Chacon, Espinosa); 
4cf, vii.1988 (Scoble, Brooks); Finca San Gab- 
riel, 16 km East North East of Quebrada 
Grande, 650 m, 2c? , 8.U.1983 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 2c?, 12. hi. 1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 
1$, 11. xi. 1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 
5. v. 1984 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, vii.1988 
(Gauld, Mitchell). Cartago: I.I.C.A. Grounds, 
600 m, lcf, 24-26.vi.1974 (Watson); Orosi, 1200 
m, 29 (Fassl); Tuis, 2c?; 3c? • Guanacaste: Esta- 
cion Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km South of Santa Cecilia, 



3c?, 1$; Finca Biesnan, Colonia Refug., Los 
Angeles, 11 km East of Quebrada Grande, 500 
m, lcf, 13. vi. 1985 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 4 km 
East Casetilla Rincon National Park, 750 m, lcf, 
22. v. 1982 (Janzen, Hallwachs). Heredia: Chila- 
mate, 100 m, 3c?, 1$, ll.viii.1986 (Covell); 
Finca La Selva Biological Station, Puerto Viejo 
Sarapiqui, 40 m, 3c?, 14-15. xi. 1982 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs); lcf, 6-9. hi. 1985 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); lcf, ii.1986 (Chavarria, Chacon); 2cf, 
hi. 1986 (Chavarria); 2c?, 1$, vii.1986 (Chavar- 
ria); 3c?, 1$, xi.1986 (Chavarria); lcf. Hi. 1987 
(Chavarria); 6c?, iv.1987 (Chavarria); lcf, 
v.1987 (Chavarria); 3cf, x.1987 (Chavarria); 
lcf, xii.1987 (Chavarria). Limon: Cerro Tortu- 
guero, Parque Nacional Tortuguero, 0-100 m, 
3cf, 27.iii.1981 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 2cf, 
30. v. 1984; Sixaola river: lcf, 1$- Osa Peninsula: 
Sirena, Corcovado National Park, 3cf, 
19-27. iii. 1981 (Janzen, Hallwachs). Puntarenas: 
Fila Esquinas, 35 km South of Palmar Norte, 
8°45' x 83°20', 150 m, 3cf, 7-8.i.l983 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs). San Jose: Estacion Carrillo, Parque 
Nacional Braulio Carrillo, 700 m, lcf, 1$, 
ix.1984 (Chacon); lcf, x.1984; Cario, lcf; La 
Fuente, Turrialba, lcf- French Guiana: Guyane: 
Mana River, 3cf, v. 1917; St. Jean du Maroni, 
lcf [lectotype of deliciosa]; 2cf, 1$; St. Laurent 
du Maroni, 1°. (Le Moult); lcf. Surinam: 
Marowijne: Aroewarwa Creek, Maroewym val- 
ley, lcf, v.1905 (Klages). Guyana: East 
Demerara-West Coast Berbice: Rio Demerara, 
1$. Mazaruni-Potaro: Omai, lcf; Rockstone, 
Essequebo, Id". Potaro River, 1$>, 1904 (Rob- 
erts); Tumatumari, lcf, xii.1907 (Klages); 
Potaro, 2cf, 1?, ii.1908 (Klages). Venezuela: 
Briceno, 5cf . Amazonas: Parque Nacional Dida, 
lcf; Rio Baria, dept Rio Negro, lcf. San Carlos 
de Rio Negro, lcf, 2$. Bolivar: El Boninche 
Reserve, Forestal Imataca, 200 m, lcf. El 
Dorado, 1?; El Dorado, Santa Elena, 125 km, 
1100 m, lcf. Carabobo: Las Quignas, Esteban 
Valley, 3cf; San Esteban, 3cf; Campo Bello, 
Rio Zoikan, 2cf. Merida: 7cf. Colombia: 
Boyaca: Muzo, 400-800 m, 8cf (Fassl). Cauca: 
Gorgona Island, 60 m, 1$, 17.x. 24 (Collenette). 
Meta: Buena Vista, lcf; Cundinamarca, La 
Mesa, lcf; Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, 2cf (Fassl). 
Ecuador: Napo: Garzacocha, 68 km (air) E. 
Coca, c. 210 m, lcf, 13-17.iii.1986 (McKamey); 
Finca San Jorge ca. 10 km (air) E. Coca on Rio 
Napo, lc?, 7-10. iii. 1986 (McKamey). Zamora: 
E. Cumbaratza, 800-900 m, lcf, 21. xi. 1970 
(Pena). Peru: Cajamarca: Charape River, Taba- 
conas, 2c?. Junin: Utcuyacu, lc?. Eoreto: Rio 
Ampiyacu, Putomayo, lcf. Madre de Dios: Tam- 
bopata Reserve, 30 km South West of Puerto 



40 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Maldonado, Id", 16-22.X.1983 (Covell). Puno: 
Yahuarmayo, 370 m, l<d, iv.1912; La Union, 
Rio Huacamayo, 610 m, 2d", wet season, xi.1904 
(Ockenden); Id, wet season, xii.1904 (Ock- 
enden); 2d\ xi-xii.1904 (Ockenden); Rio Huaca- 
mayo, 940 m, 3d\ dry season, vi.04 (Ockenden); 
Oconeque, 3d"; Quinton, 3d; Santo Domingo, 
1800 m, 1$, wet season, iii.02 (Ockenden); 2d", 
xi.1904 (Ockenden); 1$; Tinguri, 1000 m, dry 
season, 3d, 2$, viii.1904 (Ockenden); La 
Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 m, 5d\ dry season, 
ix.1904 (Ockenden); 5d, 1$, wet season, hi. 05, 
5d, 1$ (Ockenden); 3d, ix.05 (Ockenden); 4d, 
wet season, xi-xii.1905 (Ockenden); 2d, wet 
season, xii.05 (Ockenden); Id, 1$, wet season, 
i.1906 (Ockenden). Brazil: San Joas, Solimoes, 
Id"- Amapa: Para, 1$ (Moss). Amazonas: Fonte 
Boa, Id [lectotype of minorata] v. 1906 (Klages); 
4d, vii.06 (Klages); 2d", ix.06 (Klages); Id, 
vii.07 (Klages); Teffe, Id, viii.1935 (Moss); 3d; 
Sao Paulo de Olivenga, 2 d; 1$, i.1932 
(Wucherpfennig); Rio Purus, Id, xii.1921 
(Klages). Rondonia: Calama, River Madeira, 
below River Machados, Id, viii-x.07 (Hoff- 
mann). 'Amazonas:' Id [holotype of albicoma]. 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
CVCJ, INBio, MNHN, USNM, UCVM. 

Oospila albicoma nasuta Warren stat.n. 

(Figs 40, 113) 

Oospila nasuta Warren, 1909: 83; Prout, 1912: 
134; 1933: 58. LECTOTYPE d, here desig- 
nated, in BMNH. Type locality: TRINIDAD. 
Label data: Type; Caparo, Trinidad, Decem- 
ber] 1905. (S. M. Klages); Rothschild Bequest 
B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; Oospila nasuta 
type d Warr[en]; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15718 d. [Examined.] 

0" (Fig. 40). Fore wing length 12 mm. As for a. 
albicoma but: fore wing: blotch at tornus quite 
large, but not extending as far as discal cell, with 
short digitate extension; discal spot absent. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex large; blotch at tornus 
smaller; blotch at anal margin narrow; discal spot 
small, white. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 113). As for albicoma albi- 
coma. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila albicoma nasuta can be dis- 
tinguished from other species with cream 
blotches by the form of the blotch at the tornus of 
the fore wing: albicoma nasuta has a short, 



digitate extension of this blotch which does not 
occur in other species (Fig. 40). 

Distribution. Known only from Trinidad. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Saint George 
East: Caparo, Id [lectotype] xii.1905 (Klages); 
Id [paralectotype]. 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila concinna Warren 

(Figs 41, 114, 170) 

Oospila concinna Warren, 1900: 136; Prout, 
1912: 133; 1933: 57. LECTOTYPE d, here 
designated, in BMNH. Type locality: VEN- 
EZUELA. Label data: Type; Merida 1630 m 
97 Briceno; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1. Oospila concinna d War- 
den]; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15710 
d. [Examined.] 

Oospila eminens Schaus, 1912a: 428. LECTO- 
TYPE d\ here designated, in BMNH. Type 
locality: COSTA RICA. Label data: Paratype; 
Juan Vinas Costa Rica June W. Schaus; 
Oospila eminens Schfaus]; Oospila eminens 
Sch[au]s (cotype); L.B. Prout Collection] 
B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-643; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15711 d. [Examined.] 
Syn.n. 

Oospila concinna eminens Schaus; Prout, 1933: 
57. 

Oospila albicoma matura Prout, 1933: 57. LEC- 
TOTYPE $, here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: BRAZIL. Label data: Paratype; 
8.4.24 Zikan Itatiaya (Zicht); Oospila albi- 
coma matura Prout $ parat[ype]; L.B. Prout 
Collection] B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-643; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15712 $. 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

d, $ (Fig. 41). Fore wing length 19-26 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches cream variously irrorated with 
pale brown (forms eminens and matura with 
blotches darker), with dark brown perimeters. 
Fore wing: costa pale brown; blotch at apex 
large, sometimes very narrowly connected, along 
termen, to blotch at tornus; blotch at tornus very 
large, expanding towards centre of wing, extend- 
ing to include discal spot, abruptly constricted 
towards termen (not wedge-shaped as in 
depressa, compare PI. 1: 20, Figs 41 and 72); 
discal spot large, brown. Hind wing: blotches at 
apex and tornus entirely separate; blotch at anal 
margin small, narrow; discal spot small, white. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



41 



Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests 
dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder of 
dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 of male with- 
out brushes of long hair-scales; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of ster- 
num A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 emargin- 
ated posteriorly in male. 

Genitalia o" (Fig. 114). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: deeply cleft; dorsal division rounded api- 
cally; ampulla short, denticulate; sacculus 
extended into long, narrow, weakly sclerotized 
process. Anellar complex: completely surround- 
ing aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate emargin- 
ated. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica lacking 
cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig- 170). Ostium: sterigma 
approximately rectangular, emarginated posteri- 
orly. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
antrum large, below antrum narrow, strongly 
sclerotized and striated; signum large. Anterior 
apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila concinna Can be distin- 
guished from other species with cream blotches 
(except albicoma albicoma) by the size and shape 
of the blotch at the tornus of the fore wing. 

O. concinna is larger than a. albicoma, but the 
wing markings are indistinguishable. Males of 
concinna can be distinguished by the absence of a 
small elliptical sclerite and brushes of long hair- 
scales on sternum A2. The male genitalia of 
these two species are also very similar, but con- 
cinna lacks a cornutus on the vesica, and the 
shape of the apex of the valva is rounded in 
concinna, but sculpted in albicoma albicoma 
(compare Figs 113 and 114). The female genitalia 
can be distinguished by the presence of a steri- 
gma in concinna (compare Figs 169 and 170). 

The larger size and absence of a short, digitate 
extension of the blotch at the tornus of the fore 
wing distinguishes concinna from albicoma 
nasuta (compare Figs 40 and 41). 

Distribution. Widely distributed in Central 
and South America. 

Remark. Only one syntype (designated as lec- 
totype, above) of albicoma matura was located. 

Material examined. Guatemala: Chejel, lcf, 
1$. Guatemala: Guatemala City, 1°. {Rod- 
riguez). Izabel: Cayuga, Id". Alta Verapaz: 
Mpio. San Cristobal Verapaz, Mexabaj, 1300 m, 
lcf , 29.vii.1981 (Welling); Coban, 1200 m, lcf , 
31.vii.1981 (Welling). Nicaragua: Zelaya: Eden, 



14°0'N 84°26'W, 1$, 28. v. 1922 (Wharton 
Huber). Costa Rica: Recu de Janson, ld\ 1$, 
iv.1924. Alajuela: Rio San Lorencito, Reserve 
Forestal de San Ramon, 5 km North Col. Pal- 
marena, 800 m, lcf, xi.1986 (Chacon). Cartago: 
Moravia de Chirripo, 100 m, 19; Tapanti, Rio 
Grande de Orosi, 1300-1400 m, 9°46' x 83°50', 
lCf, 23. i. 1985 (Janzen, Hallwachs); Moravia de 
Chirripo, 1000 m, 19 , 10.V.1983 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); Sitio, 19; Cachi, 19, 23. v. 17; Juan 
Vinas, Id" [lectotype of eminens] vi. (Schaus); 
1100 m, Id" [paralectotype of eminens]; 760 m, 
ii.1911 (Schaus); v. 1911, 19 (Schaus); lcf [lecto- 
type of eminens]; 3cf (Schaus); lcf, i. (Schaus); 
Juan Vinas, lcf, xi; lcf [paralectotype of emin- 
ens] (Schaus). Cartago: Sitio, Id 1 , v. Heredia: La 
Selva Biological Station, Puerto Viejo de 
Sarapiqui, 40 m, lcf, 19, iii.1986 (Chavarria); 
lCf, ix.1987 (Chavarria); 2cf . ii.1986 (Chavarria, 
Chacon); El Angel waterfall, 1350 m, 8.2 km 
downhill Vara Blanca, lcf, 3. i. 1981 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs); lcf , 22. iv. 1984 (Janzen, Hallwachs). 
Limon: Cuatro Esquinas, Parque Nacional Tor- 
tuguero, m, lcf, set 1989 (Solano); I9,iv.l989 
(Aguillar, Solano); Cerro Tortuguero, Parque 
Nacional Tortuguero, 0-100 m, 1$, 30.V.1984 
(Janzen, Hallwachs); 100 m, lcf, x.1989 (Sol- 
ano); 100 m, Id", iv.1989 (Aguillar, Solano); 
Guapiles, lcf. Puntarenas: Fila Esquinas, 35 km 
South of Palmar Norte, 150 m, 8°45' x 83°20\ 
2cf, 19, 7-8.i.l983 (Janzen, Hallwachs). San 
Jose: Estacion Carrillo, Parque Nacional Braulio 
Carrillo, 700 m, 19, vii.1984 (Chacon); lcf, 
x.1984 (Chacon); 1$, ix.1984 (Chacon); lcf, 
hi. 1985 (Chacon); 2cf, vi.1985 (Chacon); La 
Montura, Braulio Carrillo National Park, 1100 
m, 3cf, 17.xii.1981 (Janzen, Hallwachs); Esta- 
cion Bijagual, 500 m. Reserve Biologica Carara, 
lCf, xi.1989 (Zuniga); Carrillo, 19; La Fuente, 
Turrialba, 3cf. Osa Peninsula: Corcovado 
National Park, lcf, 1 3-22. iii. 1980 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs). Venezuela: Hotel La Mantana, La Grita, 
Tachira, 2040 m, 1$. San Esteban, 3cf, vi.1909 
(Klages). Aragua: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 2cf , 
29; lcf, 22-23. vi. 1984 (Covell); lcf, 
12.vii-16.viii.1976 (Watson); lcf, 14.vii.1975 
(Pliske); Rancho Grande, lcf, 24. iv. 1946 (New 
York Zoological Society). Bolivar: Ptari-tepui, 
lcf. Merida: Merida, 1630 m, lcf [lectotype of 
concinna] 1897 (Briceno); lcf, iv.99 (Briceno); 
4cf [paralectotypes of concinna] (Briceno); 4cf , 
19 (Briceno); Merida: 7 cf, 19- Carabobo: Las 
Quignas, Esteban Valley: lcf, xi-iii.10; 2cf, 
1914; lcf (Klages); 2cf, vi.19 (Klages); lcf, 29. 
Colombia: Cundinamarca: La Mesa, 1200 m, 
lCf, v-vi.1920 (Hall); Finca San Pablo, 3km N of 
Alban, 1800 m, lcf l-12.viii.1967 (Wygodzin- 



42 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



sky, Wygodzinsky). Meta: Upper Rio Negro, 800 
m, lcf (Fassl). Narino: West Colombia, 
Altaquer, 500 m, 1$, iii-vi.1927. Antioquia: 
Mesopotamia, 1500 m, 2cf 1? [no date]. Valle: 
Anchicaya, Valle, 910 m, 2cf , 29.vi.1981 (Sulli- 
van). Ecuador: Napo: 69 km NE Baeza, 15 km 
SW Reventador, near San Rafael Falls, 1400 m, 
lcf, 1$, 29.x. 1988 (Miller). Peru: Cajamarca: 
River Tabaconas, North Peru, 1800 m, 3d\ 1$, 
1912 (Pratt, Pratt); Charapo River, Tabaconas, 
1200 m, lcf, 1912 (Pratt); 180 m, lcf, 1912 
(Pratt, Pratt). Junin: Utcuyacu, 1500 m, lcf, 
xii.ii.1920 (Watkins). Puno: La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, S.E Peru, 940 m, lcf, 1$, dry season, 
ix.1904 (Ockenden); 3cf, 1$, wet season, hi. 05 
(Ockenden); lcf, v. 1905 (Ockenden); San 
Gaban, 760 m, 2cf, ih-iv.1913; Oconeque, 2100 
m, lcf, ii.1905 (Ockenden); lcf, dry season, 
vh.1904 (Ockenden); 3cf, ii.1905 (Ockenden); 
Santo Domingo: 1800 m, lcf, wet season, xi.01 
(Ockenden); 1400 m, lcf, dry season, vi.02 
(Ockenden); 1800 m, 2$, dry season, vi.02 (Ock- 
enden); lcf, 1$, dry season, vii.02 (Ockenden); 
2000 m, 1$, viii.02 (Ockenden); lcf, xi.1904 
(Ockenden); Tinguri, 1000 m, lcf, wet season, 
i.1905 (Ockenden); Quinton, 1500 m, 2cf, 1905 
(Ockenden). Cuzco: lcf, i. 1952 (Waylkowski); 
Paneartambo, Coosnipata, 3cf, 14, 26. xi. 1951, 
2.xii.l951 (Woytkowski). Bolivia: La Paz: Chulu- 
mani, 2000 m, 2cf , wet season, l.i (Simons); Rio 
Songo, 3cf ; El Choro, Yungas de La Paz, 900 m, 
lcf, 7-8. i. 1976 (Pena). Chuquisaca: Incahuasi, 
E. Muyupampa, 1600 m, lcf, 21-24.xii.1984. 
Brazil: Espirito Santo: 4cf, 1$; 1? (Smith); 
Campo Bello, Rio Zikan, 3cf . Amazonas: Fonte 
Boa, 1$, vii.1906 (Klages); Hyntanahan, Rio 
Purus, lcf, h.1922 (Klages); 1$, iv.1922 
(Klages). Rio de Janeiro Zikau, Itatiaia, 1$ 
[lectotype of albicoma matura] 8.iv.24 (Zichi). 
Santa Catarina: Jaragua do Sul, lcf, ix.1932 
(Hoffmann); lcf, xii.1933 (Hoffmann); lcf, 
xh.1934 (Hoffmann); Rio Laeiss, Blumenau, 
3cf, xii.1933 (Hoffmann). Sao Paulo: Alto da 
Serra, 800 m, 1$ (Jones); lcf, 3.xii.l912 (Jones); 
Alto da Serra, Sao Paulo, lcf, xi.1922 (Spitz); 
2cf, i.1923 (Spitz); lcf, xii.1923 (Spitz); 1$, 
iii.1924 (Spitz); 1$, xii.1924 (Spitz); 1$, ii.1928 
(Spitz); Serra do Mar, 1$ {Voucher pfennig); 
Boraceia, lcf, 3.xi.l984 (Ebert); Salesopolis, 
lcf, 27. hi. 1944 (Pearson); Salesopolis, Boraceia, 
800 m, lcf, 21-25.X.1963 (Oliveira, Wygodzin- 
sky); Salesopolis, 850 m, 1$, 5.x. 1948 (Pilho, 
Pearson). Localities unknown: lcf, 1$. 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
INBio, USNM, UCVM. 



Oospila dicraspeda Prout 

(Figs 42, 115, 171) 

Oospila dicraspeda Prout, 1932: 56. LECTO- 
TYPE cf, here designated, in BMNH. Type 
locality: BRAZIL. Label data: Type; Bresil 
Province]. Mato Grosso. P. Germain 1886; 
Ex. Oberthur Collection] Britfish] Musfeum] 
1927-3; Oospila dicraspeda cf Prout type; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15705cf. 
[Examined.] 

Cf, 9 (Fig. 42). Fore wing length 9-10 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches very small and marginal, cream 
heavily irrorated with brown. Fore wing: costa 
pale brown; subapical blotch, connected to 
blotch at tornus by band along termen; blotch at 
tornus; discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: 
blotches at apex and tornus, connected by band 
along termen; blotch at anal margin absent; 
discal spot small, white. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface cream; ster- 
num A2 of male without brushes of long hair- 
scales; elliptical sclerite absent from 
intersegmental membrane of A2 and A3 of male; 
sternum A8 strongly sclerotized in male with 
bifurcate apical extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 115). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: deeply cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus 
extended into large, pointed projection. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate V-shaped. Coremata absent. 
Aedeagus: with two large carinae; vesica with 
small cornutus. 

Genitalia § (Fig. 171). Ostium: sterigma 
approximately triangular. Bursa copulatrix: duc- 
tus bursae long, antrum long; strongly sclero- 
tized, and striated below antrum; corpus bursae 
large, approximately spherical; signum small. 
Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila dicraspeda differs from 
confluaria by the absence of a brown discal spot 
on the hind wings (compare Figs 42 and 47). 
Males can be further distinguished by the 
absence of a brush of long hair-like scales on the 
hind tibia and the absence of an ampulla in the 
genitalia (compare Figs 115 and 120). Females 
may be distinguished by the shape of the sterig- 
ma (compare Figs 171 and 175). The presence of 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



43 



small blotches at, or posterior to, the apex and 
tornus of the fore and hind wings distinguish 
dicraspeda from pellucida (compare Figs 42 and 
68). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
Costa Rica, Trinidad, Peru and Brazil. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Guanacaste: 
Casa Oeste, Cerro El Hacha, 12 km South East 
La Cruz, 300 m, lcf, i.1988 (Chacon); Santa 
Rosa National Park, 1$, 2-1 l.iii. 1980 (Janzen 
Hallwachs); lcf, 9-11. v. 1980 (Janzen, Hall 
wachs); lcf, 8-10.vi.1980 (Janzen, Hallwachs) 
2cf, 1-15. i. 1982 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 1$ 
10-20.iii.1982 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 2Q\ 1? 
xii.1982 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 300 m, 4d\ 6$ 
i.1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 30. vi. 1983 (Jan- 
zen, Hallwachs); lcf, i.1984 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 4 km E Casetilla, Rincon National Park, 
750 m elevation, Id", ll.iv.1983 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs). Trinidad: 1$ (Buchholz). Peru: lcf 
(Mathan). Brazil: Mato Grosso: lcf [lectotype] 
1886 (Germain); lcf [paralectotypes]. 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, INBio. 

Oospila ciliaria (Hubner) 
(PI. 1: 12, Figs 43, 116, 172) 

[Phalaena Geometra marginaria Stoll 
[1787-1790]: 156, pi. 34, fig. 8. Homonym of 
marginaria Fabricius; Prout, 1912: 133.] 

[Phalaena marginaria (Stoll); Verloren, 1837: 
269.] 

[Comibaena (?) marginaria (Stoll); Walker, 
1861: 570.] 

Eucrostes ciliaria Hubner, 1823: 283. Holotype: 
not traced. [Not examined.] 

Oospila ciliaria (Hubner); Prout, 1912: 133; 
1932: 56. 

Phorodesma ? semialbaria Guenee, 1857: 372. 
Holotype: sex and depository unknown. Type 
locality: Brazil. [Not examined.] Synonymized 
with Oospila ciliaria (Hubner) by Guenee, 
1857: 372. 

Racheolopha pallida Warren, 1906: 426. Holo- 
type O", in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. French Guiana: Maroni R[iver], 
Saint Jean, viii.1904; Schaus collection] ; Type 
No. 9198 U.S.N.M; Genitalia Slide By MAC 
57726 USNM. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila pallida (Warren); Prout, 1912: 133. 

Oospila ciliaria pallida (Warren); Prout, 1932: 
56. 

d\ $ (PL 1: 12; Fig. 43). Fore wing length 12-15 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex red. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 



dorsal surface pale green. Wings: very pale green 
with a slight bluish tinge; blotches absent. Fore 
wing: margin of termen brick red; discal spot 
minute, faint and brown. Hind wing: as fore 
wing. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of 
long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 of male with 
brushes of long hair-scales; sternum A3 of male 
with deciduous setae (unusually for genus); ellip- 
tical sclerite present on intersegmental mem- 
brane between sterna A2 and A3 of male; 
sternum A8 with emarginated posterior edge in 
male. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 116). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; narrow; ampulla short, denticulate 
at apex; sacculus extended into short, pointed 
process. Anellar complex: completely surround- 
ing aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate usually 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
with short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (F'g- 172). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
strongly sclerotized and striated, antrum indis- 
tinct; corpus bursae medium sized, approxi- 
mately spherical; signum quite large. Anterior 
apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. The very pale colour of the wings 
makes this species easy to distinguish from all 
others in the genus. 

Distribution. Known only from the North 
West of South America, this species has been 
collected in French Guiana, Guyana and Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Amazonas: Fonte 
Boa, lcf, vii.1906 (Klages). French Guiana: 
Guyane: St. Jean du Maroni, lcf [holotype of 
pallida]; lcf , vii (Le Moult); 5cf,l$(Le Moult); 
2cf; Mana River, l<j>, v. 1917. Guyana: 
Mazaruni-Potaro: Kartabo, Bartica District, lcf; 
Omai, 2cf , vi.1908 (Klages); Potaro, 4cf , ii-1908 
(Klages); 3cf, v. 1908 (Klages); Potaro, 1$; 
Tumatumari, lcf, ii.1907 (Klages); lcf ii.1908 
(Klages). 

Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

The trilunaria group 

The monophyly of the trilunaria group is estab- 
lished on the form of the anellar complex. The 
transtillae are short arms, fused posteriorly with 
the anellar complex. The basal part of the anellar 
complex is long, usually with a short dorsal 
projection; this projection lies at right angles to 



44 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



the plane illustrated. Two subgroups, marginata 
and its relatives and atopochlora and its relatives, 
occur within the trilunaria group. 

Oospila trilunaria (Guenee) 
(Figs 44, 117, 173) 

Phorodesma trilunaria Guenee, 1857: 372. Holo- 
type cf, in BMNH. Type locality: BRAZIL. 
Label data: Bfrazil]; Ex Musaeo Ach Guenee; 
Typicum Specimen; Phorodesma trilunaria 
guenee. Sp. G. no 594. type; 3238; Ex Ober- 
thur Collection] Brit[ish] Mus[eum] 1927-3; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15756 cf. 
[Examined.] 

Comibaena trilunaria (Guenee); Walker, 1861: 
570. 

Oospila trilunaria (Guenee); Warren, 1897: 426; 
Prout, 1912: 132; 1932: 56. 

Cf, $ (Fig. 44). Fore wing length 15-22 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons green, 
vertex green dorsally, cream ventrally. Interan- 
tennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark 
green. Wings: ground colour dark green; 
blotches cream, with dark brown perimeters and 
some dark irrorations. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; subapical blotch approximately circular, 
not connected to blotch at tornus; blotch at 
tornus large, approximately circular; discal spot 
usually prominent, brown with pale centre. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex absent; blotch at tornus 
approximately circular; blotch at anal margin 
absent; anterior discal spot white; posterior dis- 
cal spot as in fore wing. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface cream; ster- 
num A2 of male with brushes of long hair-scales; 
elliptical sclerite absent from intersegmental 
membrane of sterna A2 and A3 in male; sternum 
A8 deeply emarginated in male, with two poste- 
rior extensions, serrated on facing margins. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 117). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla broad and flattish, robust, 
with denticulate apex; sacculus lobed. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate weakly emarginated. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus: vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 173). Ostium surrounded by 
ring-like sterigma. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bur- 
sae relatively broad and long, antrum short, 
narrow, strongly sclerotized, not striated below 
antrum; corpus bursae large; signum large. Ante- 
rior apophyses short. 



Diagnosis. Oospila trilunaria can be distin- 
guished by the circular wing blotches and the 
position of these blotches (Fig. 44). The male 
genitalia of trilunaria can be recognised by the 
shape of the ampulla (Fig. 117). Sternum A8 of 
the male is also distinctive. 

Distribution. Known only from Brazil. 

Remark. O. trilunaria is the type species of the 
genus. 

Material examined. Brazil: Friburgo, 1$. 
lcf [holotype]. Campo Bello, Rio Zilcan, 4cf, 
1$. Rio, 1?. Rio de Janeiro: Corcovado, 1$, 
ii. 1910; Rio de Janeiro: 2cf. Santa Catarina: 
Nova Bremen, Rio Laeiss, lcf, 1$, hi. 1936 
{Hoffmann); Nova Bremen, 250 m, lcf, x.37 
{Hoffmann); Blumenau, lcf, 26.iv.29 {Schade); 
Rio Vermehlo, 850 m, lcf, hi. 37 {Hoffmann); 
lcf, iv. 37 {Hoffmann). 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila carnelunata (Warren) 

(Figs 45, 77, 118, 174) 

Racheolopha carnelunata Warren, 1906: 421. 
Holotype cf, in USNM. Type locality: 
FRENCH GUIANA. Label data: S[ain]t Jean, 
Maroni, Ffrench] Guiana; Racheolopha car- 
nelunata type Cf; Type No. 9187 U.S.N.M; 
Collection Wm Schaus; Genitalia Slide By 
MAC 57756 USNM. [Examined.] 

Oospila carnelunata (Warren); Prout, 1932: 56. 

Cf, $ (Fig. 45, 77). Fore wing length 11-18 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: pattern varies 
greatly; ground colour dark green; blotches 
cream, with dark brown perimeters and irrora- 
tion. Fore wing: costa pale brown; subapical 
blotch connected to blotch at tornus by brown 
line along termen; blotch at tornus small; discal 
spot small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at apex 
usually extending along 2/3 of termen, usually 
darker at anterior; occasionally reduced to very 
narrow band along termen, usually connected to 
blotch at tornus by brown line along termen; 
blotch at tornus small; blotch along anal margin 
absent; anterior discal spot small, white; poste- 
rior discal spot small, brown, usually very faint, 
sometimes quite large and dark. Hind leg: proxi- 
mal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
present on male tibia. Abdomen: basal crests 
dark brown, distal crests paler; with cream area 
around crests enclosed by thin pink line, remain- 
der of dorsal surface green; sternum A2 with 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



45 



brushes of long hair-scales and elliptical sclerite 
at posterior present in male; sternum A8 strongly 
sclerotized in male, with bifurcate posterior 
extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 118). Uncus short, blunt. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla narrow, with short, subapi- 
cal process; sacculus lobed and extended into a 
short pointed process. Anellar complex: com- 
pletely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral 
plate V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: 
cornutus with strongly developed carina and 
large apical cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 174). Ostium: sterigma with 
two short, stubby, posteriorly directed pockets. 
Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae short, weakly 
sclerotized, not striated, antrum short; corpus 
bursae large; signum quite large. Anterior apo- 
physes absent. 



Diagnosis. This species can usually be distin- 
guished from marginata, obsolescens and tricam- 
erata by the extension of the hind wing apical 
blotch in carnelunata (compare PI. 1: 16, Figs 45, 
54, 55 and 56). However, in some specimens of 
carnelunata, this blotch is reduced and the geni- 
talia are the only reliable guide. The male genita- 
lia of carnelunata can be recognised by the shape 
of the ampulla (compare Figs 118, 126, 127 and 
128). The female genitalia can be recognised by 
the distinctive arrangement of pockets surround- 
ing the ostium and by the absence of anterior 
apophyses (compare Figs 174, 181, 182 and 183). 
Oospila carnelunata can be distinguished from 
confluaria by the paler colour of its markings 
(compare Figs 45 and 47). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
French Guiana, Surinam, Venezuela, Peru, 
Bolivia and Brazil. 

REMARK. A specimen of carnelunata in the 
BMNH collection was labelled by Prout as the 
type of Oospila vetita, but the name was never 
published. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, lcf [holotype]. Surinam: 
Geldersland, Surinam River, 1$- Venezuela: 1$. 
Peru: Loreto: Lago Yarina-Cocha, Loreto, lcf . 
Bolivia: Rio Songo, 750 m, lcf. Brazil: Amazo- 
nas: Fonte Boa, lcf, ix.06 (Klages). 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 



Oospila altonaria Jones 

(Figs 46, 119) 

Oospila altonaria Jones, 1921: 349; Prout, 1932: 
56. Holotype cf, in BMNH. Type locality: 
BRAZIL. Label data: Type; Alto da Serra 
Santos 800 m. 10 Mar[ch] 1913 E.D. Jones; 
Oospila altonaria Type cf D. Jones; E.D. 
Jones Collection] Brit[ish] Musfeum] 
1919-295; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15706 cf . [Examined.] 

Cf (Fig. 46). Fore wing length 14-16 mm. Frons 
and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: dark 
green; blotches absent; margin of termen and 
tornus red-brown with white fringe. Fore wing: 
costa pale brown; prominent, brown discal spot 
with pale centre. Hind wing: as in fore wing, but 
also with small, white anterior discal spot. Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler, cream area around 
crests enclosed by pink line, remainder of dorsal 
surface green; lacking brushes of long hair-scales 
on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
of male; sternum A8 strongly sclerotized, with 
bifurcate apical extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 119). Uncus short, blunt. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; costal margin bearing a pointed 
projection at base; ampulla short, robust, with 
denticulate apex; sacculus extended into short, 
pointed process. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum with V-shaped 
ventral plate, with medial extension. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus: vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia $. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. O. altonaria can be distinguished 
from other species by the combination of the 
presence of large, brown discal spots on the fore 
wing and the hind wing and absence of other 
conspicuous markings (Fig. 46). The male genita- 
lia of altonaria can be recognised by the pointed 
extension of the base of the costal edge of the 
valva and by the shape of the ampulla (Fig. 119). 

Distribution. Known only from the Sao Paulo 
province of Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Sao Paulo: Alto 
da Serra, Santos, 800 m, lcf [holotype] 
10.iii.1913 (Jones); 2cf, xi.1922 (Spitz); lcf, 
31.viii.24 (Spitz); Baracca, lcf, 4.x. 1948 (Pear- 
son). 



46 



Depository: AMNH, BMNH. 

Oospila confluaria (Warren) 

(Figs 47, 120, 175) 

Racheolopha confluaria Warren, 1906: 422. 
Holotype cf, in USNM. Type locality; 
FRENCH GUIANA. Label data: French Gui- 
ana: Maroni R[iver], Saint Jean, hi. 1904; 
Schaus Collection]; Type No. 9189 U.S.N.M. ; 
Genitalia slide by MAC No. 57720. [Exam- 
ined.] 

Oospila confluaria (Warren); Prout, 1932: 56. 

Oospila mesocraspeda Prout, 1912: 134. Holo- 
type $, in BMNH. Type locality: PANAMA. 
Label data: Type; La Choerra. Panama. 1 IV 
to 15 V 98. C.H. Dolby-Tylor 98-146; Oospila 
mesocraspeda type Prout; Geometridae genita- 
lia slide No. $ 15696. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila confluaria mesocraspeda Prout, 1932: 56. 

Cf, $ (Fig. 47). Fore wing length 11-14 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches dark brown, with paler centres. 
Fore wing: costa pale brown; subapical blotch 
small, connected to apex and to blotch at tornus 
by band along termen; blotch at tornus small; 
discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at 
apex narrow, connected to blotch at tornus by 
band along termen, blotch at tornus small; blotch 
at anal margin absent; anterior discal spot small, 
white; posterior discal spot small, brown. Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales present on male tibia. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; with 
pink area around crests, remainder of dorsal 
surface green or cream; sternum A2 of male with 
brushes of long hair-scales present; elliptical 
sclerite on intersegmental membrane of sterna 
A2 and A3 present in male; sternum A8 of male 
strongly sclerotized, with bifurcate posterior 
extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 120). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla long, narrow, digitate; sac- 
culus lobed and extended into short process. 
Anellar complex: completely surrounding aedea- 
gus. Vinculum: ventral plate V-shaped. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus: vesica with large 
cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 175). Ostium: sterigma dis- 
tinctive (Fig. 175). Bursa copulatrix: ductus bur- 
sae with large, wide, strongly sclerotized antrum, 
and striated below antrum; corpus bursae large; 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 
signum small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila confluaria can be distin- 
guished from sellifera by its much narrower 
brown band along the termen, especially in the 
hind wings (compare Figs 47 and 49). Females 
can be distinguished from sellifera by the anten- 
nae which are bipectinate in confluaria but not 
bipectinate in sellifera. 

The presence of a brown discal spot on the 
hind wings distinguishes confluaria from 
dicraspeda (compare Figs 42 and 47). Males can 
also be distinguished by the presence of a brush 
of long hair-like scales on the hind tibia of 
confluaria. 

The expansion of the brown markings into 
blotches distinguishes confluaria from pellucida 
(compare Figs 47 and 68), and the uniformly 
dark colour of the markings distinguishes conflu- 
aria from carnelunata (compare Figs 45 and 47). 

The female genitalia of confluaria can be rec- 
ognised by the distinctive shape of the sterigma 
(Fig. 175). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
Costa Rica, Panama, French Guiana, Surinam, 
Guyana, Colombia and Brazil. 

Remark. One of the specimens in the USNM 
bears a printed label with 'Orizaba, Mex' and a 
handwritten label with 'S[ain]t Jean, FRENCH 
GUIANA'. Since only one other species of 
Oospila occurs in Mexico and there have been no 
other records of confluaria occurring north of 
Costa Rica, the validity of the Mexican record 
seems doubtful. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: ld\ 2$. 
Guanacaste: 4 km West Santa Cecilia, 250 m, 
1CT, 25. ii. 1985 (Janzen, Hallwachs). Panama: La 
Chorrera, 1°. [holotype of mesocraspeda] 
l.iv-15.v.98 (Dolby-Tylor). Canal Zone: Barro 
Colorado Island, 1$. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, lcf, v. (Le Moult); 6d\ 1$ 
(Le Moult); St. Jean du Maroni, Id" [holotype of 
confluaria] hi. 1904; 3d 1 , 2£; St. Laurent du 
Maroni, 1$; Maroni River, lcf. lcf, 1916 
(Knudsen). Surinam: Marowijne: Aroewarwa 
Creek, Maroewym Valley, lcf, v. 05 (Klages). 
Guyana: Mazaruni-Potaro: Potaro, 1$, ii.1908 
(Klages). Colombia: Meta: Upper Rio Negro, 
800 m, 19 (Fassl). Brazil: Amapa: Para, lcf 
(Moss). 
Depositories: BMNH, INBio, USNM. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



47 



Oospila longipalpis (Warren) 
(Figs 48, 121, 176) 

Racheolopha longipalpis Warren, 1906: 425. 
Holotype $, in USNM. Type locality: 
FRENCH GUIANA. Label data: French Gui- 
ana: Maroni R[iver], S[ain]t Jean; Schaus Coll; 
Type No. 9196 U.S.N.M. [Examined.] 

Oospila longipalpis (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 
1932: 55. 

Cf, 9 (F'g- 4 8)- Fore wing length 13-20 mm. 
Antenna of female unknown. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green in fresh specimens, very pale in BMNH 
specimen; blotches absent; markings dark 
brown. Fore wing: weakly falcate; costa pale 
brown; band along termen broad at tornus, nar- 
rowing to apex and not extending to costa; discal 
spot very small, dark brown. Hind wing: band 
along termen, broadest at apex and tornus; discal 
spot small, white. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales on male 
tibia. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal 
crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface cream; 
sternum A2 of male with brushes of long hair- 
scales present; elliptical sclerite on intersegmen- 
tal membrane of sterna A2 and A3 in male 
present; sternum A8 strongly sclerotized in male, 
with bifurcate posterior extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 121). Uncus very short. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla short, forked at apex; sac- 
culus with very short, pointed extension. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate U-shaped with medial pro- 
jection. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica with 
short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 176). Ostium: sterigma 
square. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
narrow, strongly sclerotized, striated along most 
of its length, antrum present; corpus bursae quite 
small; signum large. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila longipalpis can be distin- 
guished from sellifera by the shape of the brown 
markings (compare Figs 48 and 49) and by the 
absence of a brown discal spot on the hind wings. 
The shape of the fore wing is also distinctive 
within the genus. The absence of white speckling 
within the brown markings distinguishes longi- 
palpis from lilacina (compare PI. 1: 13, Figs 48, 
50). The male genitalia of longipalpis can be 
recognised by the shape of the ampulla (Fig. 
121). 



Distribution. Known only from two speci- 
mens, both from French Guiana. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Id"; 
Guyane: St. Jean du Maroni, 19 [holotype]. 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila sellifera Warren 

(Figs 49, 122, 177) 

Oospila sellifera Warren, 1906: 420; Prout, 1912: 
134; 1932: 55. Holotype cf, in USNM. Type 
locality: FRENCH GUIANA. Label data: 
French Guiana: Maroni R[iver], S[ain]t Jean, 
vii.1904; Schaus Collection]; Type No. 9186 
U.S.N.M. [Examined.] 

Cf, 9 (Fig. 49). Fore wing length 10-13 mm. 
Antenna of female simple. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings dark brown. Fore wing: costa 
pale brown; subapical blotch large, merging with 
blotch at tornus via broad band along termen; 
blotch at tornus large, extending half length of 
anal margin; discal spot small, brown. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex large, merging with blotch at 
tornus via broad band along termen; blotch at 
tornus large, extending approximately half 
length of anal margin; blotch at anal margin 
small, narrow; anterior discal spot small, white; 
posterior discal spot small, brown. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales on male tibia. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; white area around 
crests pink at margin; pink or white spot some- 
times present anterior of crests; remainder of 
dorsal surface green; sternum A2 of male with 
brushes of long hair-scales present; elliptical 
sclerite on intersegmental membrane of sterna 
A2 and A3 present in male; sternum A8 of male 
strongly sclerotized, bifurcate. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 122). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla deeply forked; sacculus 
extended into pointed process. Anellar complex: 
completely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: 
ventral plate hardly emarginated. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus: vesica with short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig- 177). Ostium: sterigma com- 
plex (see Fig. 177). Bursa copulatrix: ductus 
bursae long and broad, with antrum indistinct, 
strongly sclerotized and striated; corpus bursae 
marginally wider than ductus; signum quite 
large. Anterior apophyses relatively long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila sellifera lacks the extensive 



48 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



white scaling within the dark wing blotches found 
in Ulacina (compare PI. 1: 13, Figs 49, 50). The 
presence of a single discal spot on the hind wings 
of sellifera, and the simple antennae of the 
females also distinguish these two species. 

Whereas the brown hind wing markings of 
sellifera are demarcated, in violacea the brown 
colour is diffuse and not demarcated (compare 
PI. 1: 14, Figs 49 and 51). 

The male genitalia of sellifera can be recogn- 
ised by the presence of the divided ampulla on 
each valva (Fig. 122). The female genitalia can 
be recognised by the shape of the sterigma (Fig. 
177). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela, Peru and 
Brazil. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, lcf, 1$ (Le Moult); St. Jean 
du Maroni, lcf [holotype]; 1$. Guyana: lcf- 
Venezuela: Rio Baria, 140 m, 0°55'N 66°10'W, 
lCf, 25.xii.xM. 1984 (Osuna, Chacon); Cerro de 
la Neblina, Basecamp, 4cf , 3$. Amazonas: San 
Carlos de Rio Negro, 125 m, lcf, 19-31. viii. 1976 
(Salcedo, Fernandez). Lara: Guarico, Hato 
Masaguaral, 45 km South of Calabozo, lcf. 
Peru: Loreto: Contamana, Rio Ucayali, 2cf, 
x-xii.1912. Brazil: Amapa: Para: Cachimbo, 
Altitude 400 m, 1$, 13/20.vii.55 (Travossos, 
Olivera, Pearson). Distrito Federal: Planaltina, 
15°35'S 47°42'W, 1000 m, 1$, 25.ix.1985, 1$. 
Goias: Formosa, Goias, 800 m, lcf, 15.x. 1976. 
Para: Unt. Amaz. Taperinha, below Santarem, 
lcf,21-31.vii.27(Zmiy). 

Depositories: BMNH, USNM, UCVM, 
VOBB. 

Oospila Ulacina (Warren) 
(PI. 1: 13, Figs 50, 123, 178) 

Racheolopha Ulacina Warren, 1906: 424. Holo- 
type cf, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: French Guiana: 
Maroni R[iver], S[ain]t Jean, vii. 1904; Schaus 
Collection]; Type No. 9195 U.S.N. M. [Exam- 
ined.] 

Oospila Ulacina (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 
1932: 55. 

Cf, $ (PI. 1: 13, Fig. 50). Fore wing length 14-22 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; markings purplish brown with exten- 
sive white scaling. Fore wing: costa pale brown; 
subapical blotch large, connected to blotch at 



tornus by broad band along termen; blotch at 
tornus large, running 2/3 distance along anal 
margin (PI. 1: 19); discal spot small, brown. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex large, connected to blotch at 
tornus by broad band along termen; blotch at 
tornus large, extending half length of anal mar- 
gin; independent blotch at anal margin absent; 
wing base white; anterior discal spot small, 
white; posterior discal spot small, white. Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales present on male tibia. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface cream or green; 
sternum A2 of male with brushes of long hair- 
scales present; elliptical sclerite on intersegmen- 
tal membrane of sterna A2 and A3 present in 
male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, 
bifid, with each process rounded at apex. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 123). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
cleft; ampulla extending just beyond edge of 
valva, apex broad and denticulate; sacculus 
extended into short, pointed projection. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate almost V-shaped. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus: vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 178). Ostium: sterigma 
approximately rectangular. Bursa copulatrix: 
ductus bursae with short, cone-shaped antrum, 
strongly sclerotized and striated below antrum; 
corpus bursae approximately spherical; signum 
small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila Ulacina can be distin- 
guished from longipalpis , sellifera and violacea 
by the presence of extensive white scaling within 
the brown wing markings (compare PI. 1: 13 and 
14 and Figs 48-51). Oospila Ulacina also has two 
white discal spots on the hind wing, whereas 
sellifera only has one. Oospila Ulacina is larger 
than violacea and has more extensive brown 
areas. The female genitalia of Ulacina can be 
recognised by the shape of the sterigma (Fig. 
178). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, French Gui- 
ana, and Brazil. 

Material examined. Guatemala: 2cf, 1$. 
Nicaragua: Zelaya: Eden, 14°0'N 84°26'W, lcf, 
24.iii.1922 (Wharton-Huber), Eden, 14°0'N 
84°26'W, 1$, 13.X.1922 (McKenzie). Costa Rica: 
3cf, 45. Alajuela: Finca Campana, 5 km North 
West Dos Rios, 750 m, lcf, 21. hi. 1985 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs). Finca San Gabriel (16 km East 
North East Quebrada Grande); 650 m, lcf, 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSP1LA WARREN 



49 



11. ix. 1988 (Janzen, Hallwachs). Guanacaste: 
Estacion Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km South of Santa 
Cecilia, Id". Heredia: La Selva Biological Sta- 
tion, Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, Id", iv.1987 
(Chavarria). Puntarenas: Fila Esquinas, 35 km 
South of Palmar Norte, 150 m elevation, 
8°45' x 83°20', 39, 7-8.L1983 {Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 2d (Janzen, Hallwachs). San Jose: Esta- 
cion Carrillo, Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, 
700 m, 19, ix.1984 (Chacon); Id- French Gui- 
ana: Guyane: St. Jean du Maroni, Id" [holo- 
type]; 2d", ix. (Le Moult); Id- Nouveau 
Chantier, 2d (Le Moult); 2d- Brazil: Amazo- 
nas: Nova Olinda, Rio Purus, Id, v. 1922 
(Klages). 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
INBio, USNM. 

Oospila violacea Warren 

(PI. 1: 14, Figs 51, 124, 179) 

Oospila violacea Warren, 1897: 427; Prout, 1912: 
133. Holotype 9, in BMNH. Type locality: 
GUYANA. Label data: Type; Rio Demerara; 
Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Oospila violacea type 9 Warren; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15709 9- [Examined.] 

d, 9 (PI. 1: 14, Fig. 51). Fore wing length 13-15 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green in fresh specimens, but rapidly fading 
to pale yellow-green. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; subapical blotch small, linked to blotch at 
tornus by distinctive white line along termen; 
blotch at tornus small; discal spot small, brown. 
Hind wing: purplish brown on distal half to two 
thirds, green on basal half to one third area; 
anterior discal spot small, white; posterior discal 
spot small, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface brown; ster- 
num A2 in male with brushes of long hair-scales 
present; elliptical sclerite present on interseg- 
mental membrane between sterna A2 and A3 in 
male; sternum A8 strongly sclerotized and bifid 
in male. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 124). Uncus reduced. Socii 
reduced. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla long, narrow, digitate, with 
apex denticulate; sacculus extended into robust 
process. Anellar complex: completely surround- 
ing aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate V-shaped, 
with short ventral projection. Coremata absent. 



Aedeagus: vesica with short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 ( F 'g- 179). Ostium: sterigma 
large, rectangular, complex. Bursa copulatrix: 
ductus bursae long, with large antrum, strongly 
sclerotized and striated below antrum; corpus 
bursae large; signum small. Anterior apophyses 
short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila violacea lacks the extensive 
white scaling in the wing blotches of lilacina 
(compare PI. 1: 13 and 14, Figs 50 and 51). The 
absence of distinct blotches on the hind wings 
and the more diffuse purplish brown markings 
distinguish violacea from sellifera (compare PI. 1: 
14, Figs 49 and 51). The female genitalia of 
violacea can be recognised by the shape of the 
sterigma (Fig. 179). 

Distribution. This species has been collected 
in French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, Peru, 
Bolivia and Brazil. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Laurent du Maroni, vi. 1915, Id- St. Jean du 
Maroni, 8d, 79; 2d, 39 (Le Moult); 1$, vi. 
(Le Moult); 29, 1?, ii. (Le Moult); Id, x. (Le 
Moult); Nouveau Chantier, Id, vii. (Le Moult); 
19- Surinam: Marowijne: Aroewarwa Creek, 
Maroewym valley, 19, vii. 1905 (Klages). 
Guyana: Mazaruni-Potaro: Essequebo River, 
Moraballi Creek, 19, 28. vii. 29 (Oxford Univer- 
sity Expedition); Potaro River, 19, 9-13. vii. 1912 
(Rendall); Tumatumari, Rio Potaro, Id [no 
date]; Bartica District, Kartabo, 19, 28. i. 1921; 
Omai, 19; Rockstone, Essequebo, 19- East 
Demerara-West Coast Berbice: Demerara River, 
19 [holotype]; Potaro, 2<d, 29, v. 1908 (Klages). 
Peru: Id (Mathan). Bolivia: Cochabamba: Cha- 
pare, 4d, vii. 1950, iv,v.l951; tropical region, 
Chapare, 400 m, Id, 25.viii.1948 (Foerster). 
Brazil: Rio Madeira, Id. Id (Germain). Ama- 
zonas: Fonte Boa, 19, vi.06 (Klages); 1 9, vii. 06 
(Klages); 49, viii. (Klages). Mato Grosso: 5d, 
1886 (Germain); 4d (Germain); Burity, 30 miles 
North East of Cuyaba, Id, 16-22.X.27 (Collen- 
ette). Puno: Monte Cristo, Tapajos, Id; Nova 
Olinda, Rio Purus, 29, vi.1922 (Klages). Para: 
Jacareacanga, 19, xii.1968 (Alvarenga). 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila callicula (Druce) 

(Figs 52, 125, 180) 

Comibaena callicula Druce, 1892: 88. Holotype 
d, in MNHU. Type locality: PANAMA. 
Label data: Panama: Chiriqui (Trotsch). [Not 
examined. 1 



50 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Oospila callicula (Druce); Prout, 1912: 133; 
1933: 58. 

Oospila callicula stenobathra Prout, 1933: 58. 
Holotype cf, in BMNH. Type locality: 
BOLIVIA. Label data: Type; 39. 27. Mutum, 
20 miles W[est] of Porto Saurez, 1500 ft, 
7-14.xi.27. Bolivia C. L. Collenette; 2982; 
Oospila callicula stenobathra cf type Prout; At 
light; Joicey Bequest. British] Mus[eum] 
1934-120; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15692 cf. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila callicula orchardae Prout, 1933: 58. 
Holotype $, in BMNH. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Type; Maranhao, Nforth] 
E[ast] Brazil. (Miss Orchard); Rothschild 
Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; Oospila 
callicula orchardae $ Prout type; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15693 §. [Examined.] 
Syn.n. 

Cf, $ (Fig. 52). Fore wing length 15-17 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons brown, 
vertex green. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green, markings cream. Fore wing: costa 
pale brown; blotch at apex variable in size, never 
extending to costa, not usually connected to 
blotch at tornus by band along termen; blotch at 
tornus quite small; blotch at wing base present in 
form orchardae and absent from form steno- 
bathra; discal spot large, mainly white, with 
brown centre. Hind wing: blotch at apex long, 
narrow, variable but usually extending along half 
length of termen; blotch at tornus small; blotch 
at anal margin often absent, occasionally short, 
narrow; blotch at wing base usually present 
(absent in from stenobathra); anterior discal spot 
small, white; posterior discal spot large, white. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales on male tibia. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface cream; sternum A2 of male with 
brushes of long hair-scales; elliptical sclerite on 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
present in male; sternum A8 of male strongly 
sclerotized, bifid, with each process serrated at 
apical margins. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 125). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla short, curved, with 
rounded, denticulate apex; sacculus lobed. Anel- 
lar complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. 
Vinculum: ventral plate squarish. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus: vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 180). Ostium: sterigma a bar 
with each end expanded into a pocket. Bursa 



copulatrix: ductus bursae long, quite strongly 
sclerotized, but not striated, antrum absent, 
entry point of ductus seminalis expanded and 
sclerotized; corpus bursae large; signum large. 
Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila callicula can be distin- 
guished from other species with cream markings 
by size and shape of the discal spot in the fore 
wing (Fig. 52). The genitalia of callicula (Figs 125 
and 180) are indistinguishable from those of 
obeliscata, but the wing markings are quite dis- 
tinct (compare Figs 52 and 53). The male genita- 
lia of callicula (and obeliscata) can be recognised 
by the distinctive form of the ampulla (Fig. 125). 
The female genitalia can be recognised by the 
distinctive form of the sterigma and by the 
expansion of the ductus bursae at the entry point 
of the ductus seminalis (Fig. 180). 

Distribution. This species is known only from 
Bolivia and Brazil. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Santa Cruz: 
Mutum, 20 miles West of Puerto Suarez, 460 m, 
lcf [holotype of callicula stenobathra] 7-14. xi. 27 
(Collenette). Brazil: Gioas: Maranhao, North 
East Brazil, 1$ [holotype of callicula orchardae] 
(Orchard). Mato Grosso: Urucum, 15 miles 
South of Corumba, 200 m, lcf [paratype of 
callicula stenobathra] 26.iv.27 (Collenette); lcf 
(Germain); Chapada, near Cuyaba, 4cf (Smith). 
Depositories: BMNH, CMNH. 

Oospila obeliscata (Warren) 
(PI. 1: 15, Figs 53, 125, 180) 

Anophylla obeliscata Warren, 1906: 414. Holo- 
type cf , in USNM. Type locality: GUYANA. 
Label data: Guyana: Omai; Type No. 9174 
U.S.N.M. [Examined.] 

Oospila obeliscata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 
1933: 58. 

d\ $ (PI. 1: 15, Fig. 53). Fore wing length cf 
18-22 mm, 9 23-26 mm; female usually slightly 
larger than male. Antenna of female bipectinate. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings cream, yel- 
low and brown. Fore wing: costa pale brown; 
broad white band along termen from just below 
apex to tornus, within which run two brown 
bands parallel to termen; white blotch at wing 
base with brown irrorations linked to tornus by 
white line along anal edge; discal spot large and 
distinctive, with brown marking surrounded by 
white patch. Hind wing: white band along wing 
margins surrounding central green area; band 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



51 



along termen with brown lines as in fore wing; 
white area along anal margin with brown irrora- 
tions; anterior discal spot large, white, often with 
brown marking within; posterior discal spot simi- 
lar, but larger. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales present on male 
tibia. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal 
crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface cream; 
sternum A2 with brushes of long hair-scales 
present in male; elliptical sclerite on interseg- 
mental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 present 
in male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, 
with bifid posterior extension, each process with 
serrated apical margin. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 125). As for callicula. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 180). As for callicula. 

Diagnosis. The wing markings of obeliscata are 
somewhat similar to those of includaria. How- 
ever, obeliscata is larger than includaria, and 
comparison of the patterns shows that the species 
are quite distinct (compare PI. 1: 10 and 15, Figs 
37 and 53). 

The genitalia of obeliscata are indistinguish- 
able from those of callicula (Figs 125, 180), but 
the wing markings are quite different (compare 
Figs 52 and 53). 

The male genitalia of obeliscata (and callicula) 
can be recognised by the distinctive form of the 
ampulla (Fig. 125). The female genitalia can be 
recognised by the distinctive form of the sterigma 
and by the appendix at the anterior of the ductus 
bursae (Fig. 180). 

Distribution. This species is more widely dis- 
tributed than callicula and has been collected in 
French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela, Peru, 
Bolivia and Brazil. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, 3cf, 1$ (Le Moult); 1$ {Le 
Moult); Cayenne, Id"; St. Laurent du Maroni, 
1$; Pied Saut, Oyapek River, 1$, ii.1908 
(Klages); Roura, Camp Caiman, PK33, 1$, 
2.H.1983 (Bleuzen); Route des Compagnons, km 
15, Id", viii.1985 (Bleuzen); Sinnamary, Piste a 
St. Elie, km 24, 50 m, lcf, 18.ii.1991 (Snyder); 
Regina, Piste de Belizon, pk 24, Id 1 , 
10-11. xi. 1991 (Hermier); Piste Coralie, pk. 2, 
1$, 12. xi. 1991 (Senecaux, Docquin); Regine Rte 
de l.Est, km 85, 175m, 1$, 12.ii.1991 (Snyder). 
Guyana: Mazaruni-Potaro: Potaro, Id, ii.1908 
(Klages); Omai, Id [holotype]; Tumatumari, 
Rio Potaro, Id [no date]; 1$. Venezuela: Boli- 
var: El Boninche Reserve, 200 m, l£; El 
Dorado, Santa Elena, 107 km, Bolivar, 520 m, 
19. Peru: Cuzco: Upper Amazon, Santo Anto- 



nio de Javary, lcf, v. 1907 (Klages). Puno: La 
Union, Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, 610 m. Id", 
wet season, xi.1904 (Ockenden). Loreto: 
Pucallpa, lQ", 9.xii.l966 (Schunke). Bolivia: 
Santa Cruz: Mutum, near Puerto Suarez, Id"; 
Provincia del Sara, 450 m, Id", xi. (Steinbach). 
Brazil: Hyntanahan, Rio Purus, Id", iii.1922 
(Klages). Amapa: Para, 12d", 19 (Moss). Ama- 
zonas: Manicore, Rio Madeira, 2d"; River 
Madeira, lo" (Moss). Mato Grosso: Urucum, 
near Corumba, lcf; Vila Vera, 55°30' 12°46', 
19, x.1973 (Alvarenga); 19- Rondonia: Calama, 
River Madeira, below River Machados, Id", x.07 
(Hoffmann). 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
UCVM, USNM. 

marginata and its relatives 

O. marginata and its relatives includes three 
species with similar wing markings within the 
trilunaria group. The similarity of these markings 
suggests that the subgroup is monophyletic. 
Within this subgroup, males of each species can 
be identified from the shape of sternum A8, a 
structure that can be inspected without dissecting 
the specimen. Females usually require dissection 
to confirm their identity. 

Oospila marginata Warren 
(PI. 1: 16, Figs 54, 75, 126, 181) 

Oospila marginata Warren, 1897: 427; Prout, 
1912: 133. Prout, 1932: 56. Holotype 9, in 
BMNH. Type locality: GUYANA. Label 
data: Type; Britfish]. Guiana; Rothschild 
Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1. Oospila 
marginata Type 9 Warr[en]; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15030 9- [Examined.] 

Oospila rufiplaga Warren, 1904b: 505; Prout, 
1912: 133. Holotype d", in BMNH. Type local- 
ity: PERU. Label data: Type; S[anto] Dom- 
ingo, Carabaya, 6000 ft, VI. 02 Dry seas[on] 
(Ockenden); Rothschild Bequest Bfritish] 
Mfuseum] 1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15033d". [Examined.] Syn.n 

Oospila marginata sympathes Prout, 1932: 56. 
Holotype o", in BMNH. Type locality: 
COLOMBIA. Label data: Type; Ob[erer] Rio 
Negro, Ost Colombia 800 m Collfection] Fassl; 
[?]; L.B. Prout Collection] Bfritish] M[useum] 
1939-643; Seitz VIII. 56; Oospila marginata 
sympathes d" type Prout; Geometridae genita- 
lia slide No. 15029 d. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

O", 9 (PI. 1: 16, Figs 54, 75). Fore wing length 
13-16 mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons 



52 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; blotches white or 
red-brown surrounded by dark brown. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; subapical blotch small, 
or absent; blotch at tornus small, or absent 
(subapical blotch absent in form sympathes); 
discal spot large, brown. Hind wing: blotches at 
apex and tornus small or absent; anterior discal 
spot small, white; posterior discal spot large, 
brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of 
long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder 
of dorsal surface green; male lacking brushes of 
long hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of sterna 
A2 and A3 in male; sternum A8 of male strongly 
sclerotized, bifid. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 126). Uncus short, blunt. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla long, narrow, originating 
near base of valva, apex denticulate; sacculus 
extended into short, pointed process. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate broadly V-shaped or weakly 
emarginated. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: 
vesica lacking cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 181). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae with 
antrum thickened, with convoluted folds, below 
antrum quite short, not strongly sclerotized or 
striated; signum small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Owing to intraspecific variation in 
the wing markings of carnelunata, marginata, 
obsolescens and tricamerata the only reliable 
diagnostic characters are those of the abdomen 
and genitalia. Males of marginata can be distin- 
guished by the shape of sternum A8, which can 
be examined without dissecting the specimen, 
and by the genitalia (compare Figs 118 and 
126-128). Females of marginata can be distin- 
guished from the absence of a sterigma, although 
this structure is present in carnelunata, tricam- 
erata and obsolescens (compare Figs 174, 
181-183) the distinctive thickened and convo- 
luted form of the antrum (Fig. 181) are also 
characteristic of marginata. 

Distribution. Apparently confined to tropical 
South America. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Laurent du Maroni, 1$, 1923 (Aymes); St. 
Jean du Maroni, 1$. Guyana: 1$ [holotype of 
marginata]. Colombia: Meta: East Colombia: 
Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, lcf [holotype of 



marginata sympathes] (Fassl); 4d" [paratypes of 
marginata sympathes] (Fassl); Buena Vista, 1$. 
Peru: San Gaban, lcf; 4cf (Mathan). Loreto: 
Contamana, Rio Ucayali, Id", xi— xii.1912. 
Madre de Dios: Tambopata Reserve, 30 km 
South West Puerto Maldonado, lcf (Covell). 
Puno: Yahuarmayo, 370 m, Id", iv-v.1912; San 
Gaban, 760 m, lcf, iii.-iv.1913; La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, 940 m, Id, ix.05 (Ockenden); Id, 
wet season, x.1904 (Ockenden); Santo Domingo, 
1800 m, lcf [holotype of rufiplaga] dry season, 
vi.02 (Ockenden); Tinguri, 1000 m, lcf, wet 
season, i. 1905 (Ockenden). Bolivia: Rio Songo, 
750 m, 1$. Santa Cruz: East Bolivia: 
Buenavista, 750 m, lcf, viii.06-iv.07 (Steinbach); 
Buenavista, 400 m, lcf, xi.1914 (Steinbach); 
Provincia del Sara, 450 m, 2cf, xi.1912 (Stein- 
bach); 2cf, xii.1912 (Steinbach); lcf, i.1913 
(Steinbach); lcf, ii. (Steinbach); lcf, x. (Stein- 
bach); lcf, xi. (Steinbach); lcf, xii. (Steinbach); 
River Yapacani, East Bolivia, 600 m, 2cf , ii-1915 
(Steinbach). Brazil: River Yapacani, 600 m, 2cf . 
Mato Grosso: 4cf , 1886 (Germain); Id- Amazo- 
nas: Fonte Boa, Upper Amazon: lcf; lcf, 
vih.1906 (Klages); 5$, vii.1907 (Klages); 3$, 
viii.1907 (Klages); Sao Paulo de Olivenca, 2cf, 
2$; Nova Olinda, Rio Purus, 3cf, v. 1922 
(Klages); 2$, vi.1922 (Klages); Hyantanahan, 
Rio Purus, lcf, ii.1922 (Klages); lcf, iv.1922 
(Klages); lcf (Germain). 
Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, CVCJ, USNM. 

Oospila tricamerata Prout 

(Figs 55, 127, 182) 

Oospila tricamerata Prout, 1916: 171; 1932: 56. 
Holotype d, in BMNH. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Type; Fonte Boa, Amazonas, 
May 1906 (S.M. Klages); Oospila tricamerata 
Cf type Prout; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15036 Cf . [Examined.] 

Cf, $ (Fig. 55). Fore wing length 12-13 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches white or cream surrounded by 
red brown. Fore wing: costa pale brown; subapi- 
cal blotch small, or absent, not connected to 
blotch at tornus by band along termen; blotch at 
tornus small, or absent; discal spot small, brown. 
Hind wing: blotch at apex usually small and 
narrow, meeting, or continuous with, small sub- 
apical blotch, not connected to blotch at tornus 
by band along termen; blotch at tornus small; 
blotch at anal margin absent; anterior discal spot 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



53 



small, white; posterior discal spot small, brown. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests 
dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder of 
dorsal surface cream; male lacking brushes of 
long hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of sterna 
A2 and A3 in male; sternum A8 strongly sclero- 
tized in male, with short, weakly emarginated 
extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 127). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
cleft; ampulla broad, flat, usually with projection 
close to base (absent from Costa Rican speci- 
mens) and denticulate towards apex; sacculus a 
very broad lobe. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
quite broad. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
with large cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig- 182 )- Sterigma approxi- 
mately rectangular. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bur- 
sae wide, moderately long, weakly striated, 
antrum indistinct; corpus bursae quite large; 
signum small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Owing to intraspecific variation in 
the wing markings of carnelunata, marginata, 
obsolescens and tricamerata the only reliable 
diagnostic characters are those of the abdomen 
and genitalia. The shape of sternum A8 distin- 
guishes males of tricamerata from the other spe- 
cies and can be inspected without dissecting the 
specimen. The shape of the ampulla is character- 
istic of the male genitalia of tricamerata (compare 
Figs 118 and 126-128). The presence and shape 
of the sterigma is diagnostic in the female genita- 
lia (compare Figs 174 and 181-183). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
Belize, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Surinam, 
Colombia, Peru and Brazil. 

Material examined. Belize: Rio Grande, la" 
(White). Toledo: Punta Gorda, 1$, vii.1932 
(White); 10", ix.1932 (White); Id", x.1932 
(White); Id", ii.1932 (White); lcf, vi.1933 
(White); 1$ (White); 1?, vii.1933 (White); lcf, 
iv.1934 (White); lcf, viii.1934 (White); lcf, 
v.1935 (White). Costa Rica: Guanacaste: 4 km 
West Santa Cecilia, lcf. French Guiana: Guy- 
ane: Godebert-Maroni, lcf [paratype] (Le 
Moult); St. Jean du Maroni, 2cf (Le Moult); 2cf ; 
St. Laurent du Maroni, lcf, 1$; Mana River, 
3cf, v.1917; Nouveau Chantier, lcf (Le Moult). 
Surinam: Sipalawini District, Thibiti area, Kabo 
Creek (partly swampy, primary forest on hilly 
slopes circa 2 km from river); lcf. Suriname: 



Geldersland, Surinam River, lcf. Guyana: 
Bought at Georgetown, lcf. Colombia: 
Magdalena Valley, lcf, v-viii.1920 (Hall). Meta: 
Upper Rio Negro, East Colombia, 800 m, lcf, 
1$ (Fassl). Peru: lcf (Mathan). Amazonas: 
Cavallo-Cocho, lcf, v-vii.1884 (Mathan). 
Loreto: Rio Pacaya, Lower Ucayali, lcf, vii- 
i-ix.1912; Rio Ampiyacu, Putomayo, lcf. Brazil: 
Rio Topajoz, lcf. Amapa: Para, lcf (Moss); 
lcf. Amazonas: Codajas, Upper Amazon, lcf 
[paratype] iv.1907 (Klages); Fonte Boa, lcf 
[holotype] v. 1906 (Klages); 2 cf [paratypes] 
viii.1907 (Klages); Boa Fe, lcf; Amazonas, lcf; 
Above Manaos, 1°. (Moss). Mato Grosso: lcf 
(Germain). 

Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, INBio, 
MDHG, USNM. 

Oospila obsolescens Prout stat.n. 
(Figs 56, 128, 183) 

[Racheolopha trilunaria Guenee ah. obsolescens 
Warren, 1909: 86. Infra-subspecific name.] 

Oospila rufiplaga obsolescens; Prout, 1932: 56. 
Holotype cf , in BMNH. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Type; Fonte Boa, Amazonas, 
August 1906. (S.M. Klages); Racheolopha tri- 
lunaria Guen[ee] ab. obsolescens type cf War- 
r[en]; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 
1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15035 
Cf. [Examined.] 

Cf, 9 (Fig- 56). Fore wing length 12-14 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches cream or red-brown, surrounded 
by dark brown. Fore wing: costa pale brown; 
blotch at apex absent; sometimes small subapical 
blotch present, not connected to blotch at tornus 
by band along termen; blotch at tornus approxi- 
mately circular; discal spot large, brown. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex absent; blotch at tornus 
small; blotch at anal margin absent; anterior 
discal spot small, white; posterior discal spot 
large, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 
dorsal surface green; basal crests dark brown, 
distal crests paler; all crests surrounded by a 
cream area and enclosed by pink line; male 
lacking brushes of long hair-scales on sternum 
A2; elliptical sclerite absent from intersegmental 
membrane of sterna A2 and A3; sternum A8 of 
male strongly sclerotized, bifid. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 128). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 



54 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



with shallow cleft; ampulla short, broad, robust, 
conspicuously denticulate at apex; sacculus with 
very short extension. Anellar complex: com- 
pletely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral 
plate broad. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
without cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 183). Ostium: sterigma 
approximately elliptical. Bursa copulatrix: ductus 
bursae quite long, weakly sclerotized, not stri- 
ated, antrum absent. Bursa copulatrix large, 
signum large. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Owing to intraspecific variation in 
the wing markings of carnelunata, marginata, 
obsolescens and tricamerata the only reliable 
diagnostic characters are those of the abdomen 
and genitalia. Males can be distinguished from 
those of marginata and tricamerata by the shape 
of sternum A8 (compare Figs 126-128) which can 
be examined without dissecting the specimens 
and from those of carnelunata, marginata, obso- 
lescens and tricamerata by the genitalia, espe- 
cially the shape of the ampulla (compare Figs 118 
and 126-128). The presence of an elliptical steri- 
gma distinguishes the female genitalia of obsole- 
scens from the other species (compare Figs 174 
and 181-183). Specimens of obsolescens are usu- 
ally smaller than those of marginata and tricam- 
erata, but the ranges of size overlap so whilst a 
useful guide, this character is not diagnostic. 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
Surinam, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. 

Remark. Originally, obsolescens was originally 
used by Warren (1909), as an infra-subspecific 
name. Prout (1932) described obsolescens as a 
subspecies of rufiplaga. 

Material examined. Surinam: Sipalawini Dis- 
trict, Thibiti area, Kabo Creek (partly swampy, 
primary forest on hilly slopes circa 2 km from 
river) 2cf. Peru: Amazonas: Cavallo-Cocho, 
Id, v-vii.1884 (Mathan). Bolivia: Santa Cruz: 
Provincia del Sara, 450 m, Id; East Bolivia, 
River Yapacani, 600 m, ld\ ii.1914 (Steinbach); 
2d, ii. 1915 (Steinbach). Brazil: Amazonas: 
Fonte Boa, Id" [holotype] viii.1906 (Klages); 
ld\ vii.1906 (Klages); ld\ 1$ viii.1906 
(Klages); 1$ (Klages); 1?, ix.06 (Klages); 1$, 
viii.1907 (Klages). Amazonas: Sao Paulo de 
Olivenca, Id" , i.1933 (Waehner). 
Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, MDHG. 

atopochlora and its relatives 

(atopochlora , hyalina, atroviridis , congener) 

O. atopochlora and its relatives includes a sub- 



group of four species within the trilunaria group. 
The wing markings of the species are very similar 
(see Figs 57-60), but the monophyly of the 
subgroup has not been established. 

Oospila atopochlora Prout 

(Figs 57, 129, 184) 

Oospila atopochlora Prout, 1933: 57. Holotype 
d, in BMNH. Type locality: COLOMBIA. 
Label data: Type; Muzo, Colombia 400-800 m 
Coll[ection] Fassl; Seitz VIII 57; Oospila ato- 
pochlora Prout d type; L.B. Prout Collec- 
tion] B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-643; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15047 cf. 
[Examined.] 

d, $ (Fig. 57). Fore wing length 16-21 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark brown or black. Wings: ground 
colour dark green; blotches dark brown or black. 
Fore wing: costa pale brown; blotch at apex 
large, but not extending to costa, and not con- 
nected to blotch at tornus via termen; blotch at 
tornus large; discal spot large, dark brown or 
black. Hind wing: blotch at apex large, enclosing 
smaller subapical green area on termen, not 
connected to blotch at tornus via termen; blotch 
at tornus large; blotch at anal margin absent; 
anterior discal spot small, dark brown or black; 
posterior discal spot small, white. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface dark brown or black at anterior, green 
posteriorly; male lacking brushes of long hair- 
scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent 
from intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and 
A3 of male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclero- 
tized, deeply emarginated. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 129). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
ampulla relatively short, digitate, with denticu- 
late apex; sacculus extended into short point. 
Anellar complex: completely surrounding aedea- 
gus. Vinculum: ventral plate V-shaped. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus: with two large carinae; 
vesica with a small cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 184). Sterigma absent. Bursa 
copulatrix: ductus bursae not differentiated from 
corpus bursae, but with large antrum; not 
strongly sclerotized or striated; corpus bursae 
large, more strongly sclerotized than in most 
Oospila, with wavy folds; signum large. Anterior 
apophyses short. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



55 



Diagnosis. Oospila atopochlora is larger than 
congener. Also, it has a small subapical green 
area on the termen of the hind wing, an area that 
is dark brown or black in congener (compare Figs 
57 and 60). The male genitalia of the two species 
are very similar, but atopochlora can be identi- 
fied by the presence of two large carinae towards 
the base of the aedeagus (compare Figs 129 and 
132). The female genitalia of atopochlora are 
distinguished from those of congener by the 
absence of a sterigma (compare Figs 184 and 
186). 

The presence of the large blotch at the apex of 
the fore wing in atopochlora distinguishes the 
species from hyalina (compare Figs 57 and 58). 
Furthermore, hyalina has two separate dark 
brown or black markings at the apex of the hind 
wing, joined by a dark brown or black band 
along the termen whereas atopochlora has a 
single blotch. 

Distribution Material was examined from 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Guyana, Ven- 
ezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil. There is 
also a record of one male from San Gaban in 
Peru (Prout, 1932), although the location and 
identity of the specimen has not been confirmed. 

Material examined. Nicaragua: Zelaya: 
Eden, 14°0'N 84°26'W, lcf, 24.iii.1922 (Whar- 
ton, Huber); lcf, 24.iv.1922 (Wharton, Huber); 
lO", 17. v. 1922 (Wharton, Huber). Costa Rica: 
Heredia: La Selva Biological Station, Puerto 
Viejo de Sarapiqui, 40 m, lcf, x.1986 (Chavar- 
ria); Id", iv.1987 (Chavarria). Limon: Cerro 
Tortuguero, North edge Tortuguero National 
Park, 0-100 m, 1$, 30.V.1984 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 9.4 km West of Bribi, Suretka, 200 m, 
Id", 9-11. vi. 1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); Id", 
iv.1989 (Aguillar, Solano). Puntarenas: Estacion 
Quebrada Bonita, 50 m R.B. Carara, lcf, 
ix.1989 (Zuniga); lcf, x.1989 (Zuniga); Fila 
Esquinas, 35 km South of Palmar Norte, 8°45' x 
83°20', 4cf, 1$, 7-8.U983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 
Manuel Antonio National Park Quepos, 30 m, 
lCf, v.1987 (Chacon); lcf, vi.1987 (Chacon); 
Las Cruces Biological Station, San Vito, 1200 m, 

19, 16-20.xi.1987 (Chacon). Osa Peninsula: 
Sirena Corcovado National Park, lcf, 
10-12. viii. 1980 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 19, 
5-11. i. 1981 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 1. v. 1984 
(Janzen, Hallwachs); Sirena Corcovado: 19, 
iv.1989 (Blanco, Fonseca); 19, ii.1990 (Fon- 
seca); Finca Cafrosa, Estacion Las Mellitzas, 
Parque Nacional Amistad, 1300 m, lcf, 

20. viii — 4. ix.1989 (Ramirez, Mora). Panama: 
Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island, 19- 



Guyana: Mazaruni-Potaro: Omai, 2cf. Venezu- 
ela: Bolivar: Forestal Imataca, El Boninche 
Reserve, Bolivar, 200 m, lcf, 6-13.xii.74. 
Colombia: Boyaca: Muzo, 400-800 m, lcf [holo- 
type] (Fassl); 3cf [paratypes]. Meta: Buena 
Vista, 2o\ 19- Ecuador: Tung Banos (39 km 
East) 19- Brazil: Amazonas: Sao Paulo de 
Olivenga, 2cf; Hyntanahan, Rio Purus, 3cf, 
ii.1922 (Klages); 2cf, iii.1922 (Klages). 

Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, INBio, 
UCVM, USNM. 

Oospila hyalina Warren 
(Figs 58, 130, 185) 

Oospila hyalina Warren, 1897: 427; Prout, 1912: 
133; 1933: 59. Holotype 9, in BMNH. Type 
locality: COLOMBIA. Label data: Type; 
Bogota; Rothschild Bequest Bfritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; Oospila hyalina Warr[en] 
type 9; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15042 
9- [Examined.] 

[Halioscia atroviridis Warren, 1907: 202. In part. 
Misidentification of 9] 

[Halioscia ruptimacula Warren, 1909: 77. Holo- 
type cf, in BMNH. Type locality: PERU. 
Label data: Type; La Union, Huacamayo, 
Carabaya, 2000 ft, wet season, December] 
1904. (G. Ockenden); Halioscia ruptimacula 
type cf Warr[en]; Rothschild Bequest Bfritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; find in Seitz vol 8; Oospila 
fractimacula Prout nom. nov; ruptimacula 
Warr[en] nom. praeocc; Geometridae genita- 
lia slide No. 15044 cf. [Examined. A junior 
secondary homonym of Oospila ruptimacula 
Warren, 1901: 448.] 

Oospila fractimacula Prout, 1912: 134. Prout, 
1932: 56. [New name for Halioscia ruptimacula 
Warren, 1909 by Prout, 1912: 134.] Syn.n. 

Cf , 9 ( Fi g- 58 )- Fore win g length cf 12-14 mm, 
9 20 mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons 
and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; blotches dark brown 
or black. Fore wing: costa pale brown; blotch at 
apex small, approximately rectangular, not 
extending to costa, not connected to blotch at 
tornus via termen; blotch at tornus larger; discal 
spot large, round, dark brown or black. Hind 
wing: blotch at apex divided into two small 
markings with central green patch between, not 
connected to blotch at tornus via termen; blotch 
at tornus small; blotch at anal margin absent; 
anterior discal spot small, white; posterior discal 
spot large, dark brown or black. Hind leg: proxi- 
mal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 



56 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
cream; male lacking brushes of long hair-scales 
on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
of male; sternum A8 strongly sclerotized in male, 
with bifurcate posterior extension. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 130). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: excavated; ampulla short, pointed; short 
sclerotized process also present where valva wid- 
ens; sacculus lobed. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
with short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 185). Ostium: sterigma very 
large, approximately elliptical, with posterior 
edge emarginated. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bur- 
sae long, antrum absent; strongly sclerotized, 
and striated; corpus bursae moderately small, 
sclerotized, with some striations; signum large. 
Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila hyalina can be distin- 
guished from atopochlora and congener by the 
small, narrow subapical blotch of the fore wing, 
which never extends to the costa in hyalina 
(compare Figs 57, 58 and 60). Oospila hyalina 
can also be distinguished by the form of the 
blotch at the apex of the hind wing, which is split 
into two small, completely separate, dark brown 
or black patches. The male genitalia of hyalina 
can be recognised by the presence of a second 
short, pointed process (in addition to the 
ampulla) on the valvae (Fig. 130). 

Distribution. Known only from Colombia, 
Ecuador and Peru. 

Remark. Warren (1907: 202) misidentified one 
female specimen of hyalina Warren as atroviridis 
Warren. 

Material examined. Colombia: Cundinamar- 
ca: Bogota, 1$ [holotype of hyalina]; 1$. Antio- 
quia: El Cerro, Frontino, Dept di Antioquia, 
1800 m, ld\ 17.vi.1938. Ecuador: Carchi, Chi- 
cal, 0°56'N 78°11'W, 1250 m, ld\ 31.vii.78 
(Rawlins); 1$, 18.vii.1983 (Rawlins, Davidson). 
Morona-Santiago: 40 km North North East 
Macas, 2°05'S 78°01'W, 1020 m, ld\ 13.vi.1983 
(Rawlins, Thompson). Peru: Puno: La Union, 
Rio Huacamayo, 610 m, Id" [holotype of Halios- 
cia ruptimacula] wet season, xii.04 (Ockenden); 
South East Peru: La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 
m, 19, wet season, hi. 05 (Ockenden). 
Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, USNM. 



Oospila atroviridis Warren stat. rev. 
(PI. 1; 17, Figs 59, 131) 

Oospila atroviridis Warren, 1904a: 24; Prout, 
1912: 133. Holotype d\ in BMNH. Type local- 
ity: PERU. Label data: Type; S[anto] Dom- 
ingo, Carabaya, 6000 ft, XII. 01. wet seas[on] 
(Ockenden); Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] 
Mfuseum] 1939-1; Oospila atroviridis type cf 
Warr[en]; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15043cf. [Examined.] 

Halioscia atroviridis Warren, 1907: 202. [In part. 
19 of hyalina misidentified as atroviridis.} 

Oospila hyalina atroviridis Warren; Prout, 1933: 
59. 

Oospila dolens Druce, 1911: 293; Prout, 1933: 
59. Holotype cf, in BMNH. Type locality: 
COLOMBIA. Label data: Type; La Maria 
Dagua Valley W[est] Colombia, 4700 ft May 
'08; Joicey Bequest. Brit[ish] Mus[eum] 
1934-120; Oospila dolens type Druce; Deter- 
mined] by L.B. Prout; Geometridae genitalia 
slide No. 15726 cf . [Examined.] Syn.n. 

(S (PI. 1: 17, Fig. 59). Fore wing length 13-14 
mm. Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; blotches large, promi- 
nent, dark brown or black. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; blotches merged to give broad band 
along termen, sometimes broken by small green 
patch or patches usually towards apex or at 
termen; discal spot large, brown. Hind wing: 
dark brown blotches at apex and tornus, usually 
separate, but occasionally merging along termen; 
anterior discal spot small, white; posterior discal 
spot large, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs 
absent; brush of long hair-like scales absent. 
Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, distal crests 
paler; remainder of dorsal surface dark brown or 
black; male lacking brushes of long hair-scales on 
sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from inter- 
segmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 in 
male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, 
bifid. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 131). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: ampulla short, curved, with short basal 
projection; sacculus developed into short, 
pointed process with lobe basad of this. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate V-shaped. Aedeagus: vesica 
with cornutus. 

Genitalia 9- Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila atroviridis can be distin- 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



57 



guished from atopochlora, congener and hyalina 
by its smaller size and by the more extensive dark 
brown markings on the wings (compare PI. 1: 17, 
Figs 57-60). In atroviridis the dark brown mark- 
ings on the fore wing are continuous whereas in 
the other species the blotches are separate and 
have green patches between them. 

Most specimens can be distinguished from 
zamaradaria because whereas atroviridis has two 
separate dark brown blotches on the hind wings, 
in zamaradaria there is a continuous dark brown 
line along the termen of the hind wing (compare 
PI. 1: 17, Figs 29 and 59). The presence of an 
anterior white discal spot and a posterior dark 
brown or black discal spot also distinguishes 
atroviridis from zamaradaria, which has a single, 
or no discal spot. 

The darker, blacker colour of the markings 
and the presence of large, prominent, discal 
spots distinguish atroviridis from Camilla (com- 
pare PI. 1: 5, 17, Figs 21 and 59). 

Distribution. Known only from Colombia and 
Peru. 

Material examined. Colombia: Antioquia: El 
Cerro, Frontino, Id". Valle: La Maria, Dagua 
Valley, 1400 m, Id" [holotype of dolens] v.08. 
Peru: Puno: Santo Domingo Carabaya, 1800 m, 
wet season, Id" [holotype of atroviridis] xii.01 
(Ockenden); Id", wet season, i.02 (Ockenden); 
2d", wet season, iv.02 (Ockenden); Id", dry 
season, vii.02 (Ockenden); Id", dry season, x.02 
(Ockenden); Id", wet season, xi.02 (Ockenden); 
Id", wet season, xii.02 (Ockenden); La Oroya, 
Rio Inambari, 940 m, Id", dry season, ix.04 
(Ockenden); Id", wet season, x.04 (Ockenden); 
Id", wet season, iii.05 (Ockenden); Quinton, 
1500 m. Id", i.1905 (Ockenden). 
Depository: BMNH. 

Oospila congener Warren 
(Figs 60, 132, 186) 

Oospila congener Warren, 1900: 136; Prout, 
1912: 133; 1933: 57. Holotype o", in BMNH. 
Type locality: GUYANA. Label data: Type; 
Rio Demerara. VII. 97; Rothschild Bequest 
B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; Oospila congener 
type d" Warr[en]; Geometridae genitalia slide 
No. 15045 d". [Examined.] 

Halioscia congener Warren, 1907: 203. 

Halioscia procellosa Warren, 1907: 202. Holo- 
type d", in BMNH. Type locality; PERU. 
Label data: Type; La Oroya, R[io] Inambari, 
Peru, Sept 1904 3100 ft, dry seas[on] (G. 
Ockenden); Halioscia procellosa type d" War- 



den]; Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] Mfuseum] 

1939-1; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15046 

d". [Examined.] Syn.n. 
Oospila procellosa (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134. 
Oospila congener procellosa (Warren); Prout, 

1933: 57. 

d", 9 (F'g- 60). Fore wing length 12-19 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches dark brown or black. Fore wing: 
with costa pale brown; blotch at apex large, 
approximately circular, not extending to costa, 
not connected to blotch at tornus via termen; 
blotch at tornus large; discal spot large, diffuse, 
dark brown or black. Hind wing: blotch at apex 
large, not broken by internal green markings (as 
it is in atroviridis and atopochlora); anterior 
discal spot large, diffuse, dark brown or black; 
posterior discal spot small, white. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface dark brown, or black; male lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of sterna A2 and A3 in male; sternum A8 
strongly sclerotized in male, emarginated. 

Genitalia d" (Fig. 132). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
ampulla short, digitate; sacculus extended into 
very short, pointed process. Anellar complex: 
completely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: 
ventral plate squarish. Coremata absent. Aedea- 
gus long, narrow, and curved; vesica with small 
cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 186). Ostium: sterigma with 
two apical pockets of varying size; often with 
smaller central apical projection (as in Fig. 186). 
Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae not strongly scle- 
rotized or striated, but with folds, antrum indis- 
tinct; corpus bursae slightly wider than ductus, 
signum large. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila congener is smaller than 
hyalina and the blotch at the apex of the fore 
wings is large and approximately circular. The 
blotch at the apex of the hind wing is not divided 
into two smaller markings in congener as it is in 
atopochlora and hyalina (compare Figs 57, 58 
and 60). The separation of blotches at the apex 
from those at the tornus of all wings distinguishes 
congener from atroviridis, in which these 
blotches are merged (compare PI. 1: 17, Figs 59 
and 60). Females of congener can be recognised 



58 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



by the distinctive form of the sterigma (Fig. 186). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
French Guiana, Guyana, Colombia, Peru, 
Bolivia and Brazil. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
Nouveau Chantier, 1^, ii. (Le Moult); St. Lau- 
rent du Maroni, lcf; Mana River, lcf, v. 1917. 
Guyana: East Demerara-West Coast Berbice: 
Demerara River, lcf [holotype of congener] 
vii.97. Mazaruni-Potaro: Potaro, 1$, ii.1908 
(Klages). Colombia: Merida, 500 m, lcf. Meta: 
East Colombia, Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, 4cf 
(Fassl). Peru: Puno: La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 
940 m, lcf [holotype of procellosa] dry season, 
rx.1904 (Ockenden); 3cf, dry season, ix.1904 
(Ockenden); 7cf, wet season, in. 1905 (Ock- 
enden); 2c? , dry season, v. 1905 (Ockenden); lcf, 
ix.05 (Ockenden); 2cf, xi-xii.1905 (Ockenden); 
2cf, xii.05 (Ockenden); La Oroya, South East 
Peru, 910 m, lcf, 1$ (Ockenden); Carabaya, 
Tinguri, 1000 m, lcf, dry season, viii.1904 (Ock- 
enden); 1$ [paratype of procellosa] viii.1904 
(Ockenden); San Gaban, 760 m, lcf, iii-iv.1912. 
Bolivia: Rio Songo, lcf. Brazil: Amazonas: 
Fonte Boa, 2cf, v.1906 (Klages); 4cf, vi.1906 
(Klages); 2cf, viii.1906 (Klages); lcf, vii.1907 
(Klages); 1$ (Klages); Hyntanahan, Rio Purus, 
lCf, i.1922 (Klages); lcf, ii.1922 (Klages); lcf, 
hi. 1922 (Klages); lcf, vi.1922 (Klages). Amapa: 
Para, 13cf , 3$ (Moss). Para: Unt. Amaz. Taper- 
inha, below Santarem, lcf, 21-31. vii. 27 (Zerny); 
Monte Cristo, Tapajos, lcf. 
Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, USNM. 

Oospila immaculata sp.n. 

(Figs 61, 133, 187) 

Holotype cf, in MNRJ. Type Locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Col Becker 58355; Planaltina 
D[istrito] F[ederal], BRASIL - 1000 m, 
15°35'S 47°42'W, 3.viii.l986, V.O. Becker col; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 14684 cf. 
[Examined.] 

Cf , 9 (Fig- 61)- Fore wing 13-14 mm. Antenna 
of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex green. 
Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal surface 
dark green. Wings: pale green; unmarked. Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; with cream area 
around crests enclosed by pink line, remainder of 
dorsal surface green; male lacking brushes of 
long hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
on intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and 



A3 of male absent; sternum A8 of male strongly 
sclerotized, bifid. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 133). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus extended into 
robust, pointed process. Anellar complex: com- 
pletely surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral 
plate broad, robust, emarginated. Coremata 
absent. Aedeagus: vesica with large cornutus and 
some denticles. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 187). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix with antrum long, duc- 
tus bursae below antrum very long, with U-bend, 
strongly sclerotized, striated; corpus bursae 
large; signum absent. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila immaculata can be distin- 
guished from holochroa and stagonata by the 
absence of a discal spot on the fore wings (com- 
pare Figs 34, 61 and 73). The absence of a small 
marking at the tornus of the fore wing and hind 
wing distinguishes immaculata from decoloraria 
(compare Figs 61 and 64). The female genitalia 
of immaculata can be recognised by the U-bend 
of the ductus bursae (Fig. 187). 

Distribution. The two specimens examined 
were collected in Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: RJ Cach. do 
Macacu, 600 m, 1$ [paratype] 13.x. 1985 
(Becker). Distrito Federal: Planaltina, 15°35'S 
47°42'W, 1000 m, lcf [holotype] 3.viii.l986 
(Becker) . 
Depositories: MNRJ, VOBB. 

Oospila rubescens (Warren) 

(Figs 62, 134, 188) 

Racheolopha rubescens Warren, 1906: 423. Holo- 
type Cf, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: French Guiana: 
Maroni R[iver], S[ain]t Jean; Schaus Collec- 
tion]; Type No. 9192 U.S.N.M; Genitalia slide 
by MAC 57763 USNM. [Examined.] 

Oospila rubescens (Warren); Prout, 1933: 58. 

Cf, 2 (Fig. 62). Fore wing length 8-10 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings reddish brown. Fore wing: costa 
pale brown; blotch at apex large, extending to 
costa, connected to blotch at tornus via termen; 
blotch at tornus large; discal spot small, brown. 
Hind wing: blotches at apex and tornus large, 
connected via termen; discal spot small, white. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



59 



Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales present on male tibia. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface cream or brown; 
sternum A2 of male with brushes of long hair- 
scales present; elliptical sclerite present on inter- 
segmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 of 
male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, 
bifid. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 134). Uncus very short. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla long, arising close to base 
of valva; sacculus extended into short, robust, 
serrated process. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
without cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 188). Ostium: sterigma a bar 
with each end expanded into a pocket. Bursa 
copulatrix: ductus bursae broad, quite long, with 
short, strongly sclerotized antrum, weakly stri- 
ated below antrum; corpus bursae with small 
signum. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. In rubescens the blotch at the apex 
of the fore wing extends to the costa whereas it 
does not in circumsignata (compare Figs 62 and 
63). Males can also be distinguished by the 
presence of a brush of long hair-like scales on the 
hind tibia of rubescens. The female genitalia of 
rubescens can be recognised by the distinctive 
shape of the sterigma and the pocket on each side 
(Fig. 188). 

Distribution. Known only from French Gui- 
ana and Surinam. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, lo" [holotype]; 8cf , 4$ (Le 
Moult); lcf (Le Moult); Id (Bar); 8cf, 4$; 
Roches de Kourou, Id". Surinam: Marowijne: 
Areowarwa Creek, Maroewym Valley, 1$, iv.05 
(Klages). 

Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila circumsignata Prout 

(Figs 63, 135) 

Oospila circumsignata Prout, 1916: 171; 1933: 58. 
Holotype Q\ in BMNH. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Fonte Boa, Uppfer] Ama- 
zon, August 1907. (S.M. Klages); Rothschild 
Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; Oospila 
circumsignata d" type Prout; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15720 d". [Examined.] 

d" (Fig. 63). Fore wing length 10-11 mm. Frons 



and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. 
Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings pale brown, 
with dark brown perimeters and irrorations. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; blotch at apex not 
extending along costa (unlike situation in rubes- 
cens, Fig. 62), connected to blotch at tornus via 
termen; blotch at tornus large, approximately 
rectangular, extending 2/3 length of anal margin; 
discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at 
apex extending 1/2 length of termen, connected 
to blotch at tornus via termen; blotch at anal 
margin absent; discal spot small, white. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; crests surrounded by 
pink area, remainder of dorsal surface green; 
sternum A2 in male with hair brushes present; 
elliptical sclerite on intersegmental membrane of 
sterna A2 and A3 of male present; sternum A8 in 
male strongly sclerotized, bifid. 

Genitalia a" (Fig. 135). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
cleft; ampulla short, curved, with denticulate 
apex; sacculus extended into strongly sclerotized, 
pointed process. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus, with two large, approxi- 
mately rectangular ventral plates. Coremata 
absent. Vinculum: ventral plate V-shaped. 
Aedeagus: vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia £. Unknown. 

Diagnosis. Oospila circumsignata is very simi- 
lar in external appearance to rubescens (compare 
Figs 62 and 63), but the blotch at the apex of the 
fore wing in circumsignata does not extend along 
the costal edge as it does in rubescens. Oospila 
circumsignata is also slightly larger than rubes- 
cens. Males can be distinguished by the lack of a 
brush of long hair-like scales on the hind tibia of 
circumsignata. 

Oospila circumsignata can be distinguished 
from asmura by the lack of a short extension of 
the hind wing at the apex of vein M 3 (compare 
Figs 17 and 63). These two species can also be 
distinguished by the form of the blotch at the 
tornus of the hind wing which is extended along 
the anal margin in asmura. 

The male genitalia of circumsignata can be 
recognised by the curved form of the ampulla 
and the large ventral plates of the anellar com- 
plex (Fig. 135). 

Distribution. Only 6 specimens of this species 
were examined, all from the Amazonas region of 
Brazil. 



60 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Material examined. Brazil: Amazonas: Sao 
Paulo de Oliven^a, 2cf . Fonte Boa, lcf, vii.1907 
(Klages); lcf [holotype] viii.1907 (Mages); Nova 
Olinda, Rio Purus, 2cf , v. 1922 (Klages). 
Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, USNM. 

Oospila decoloraria (Walker) 
(Figs 64, 136, 189) 

Iodis decoloraria Walker, 1861: 541. Holotype $ 
[see remarks], in BMNH. Type locality: 
JAMAICA. Label data: Jamaica; Type, 45 
110; 7. IODIS DECOLORARIA; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15703 9- 
[Examined.] 

Oospila decoloraria (Walker); Prout, 1912: 133; 
1932: 56. 

Cf, $ (Fig. 64). Fore wing length 8-11 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: dark green, blotches 
absent. Fore wing: costa pale brown; unmarked 
except for minute brown spot at tornus. Hind 
wing: small brown spot at tornus; discal spot 
small, white. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; crests 
surrounded by narrow white line, remainder of 
dorsal surface green; male lacking brushes of 
long hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
on intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and 
A3 in male absent; sternum A8 of male strongly 
sclerotized, bifid. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 136). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
cleft; ampulla short, apex weakly curved and 
denticulate; sacculus extended into long spine- 
like process. Anellar complex: completely sur- 
rounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
rounded, with short, anterior extension. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus: strongly curved in 
unique specimen; vesica with short cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 189). Ostium: sterigma a 
semicircular plate, with deep emargination of 
posterior edge. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae 
narrow posteriorly, widening anteriorly, strongly 
sclerotized and striated, antrum indistinct; cor- 
pus bursae large, approximately spherical; 
signum small. Anterior apophyses relatively 
long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila decoloraria is recognisable 
from most other species by having almost 
unmarked wings. Males can be distinguished 
from those of confundaria by the absence of a 



brush of long hair-like scales on the hind leg of 
decoloraria. In the females of decoloraria the 
antenna is bipectinate, whereas in confundaria it 
is simple. 

Oospila decoloraria can be distinguished from 
immaculata by the presence of minute markings 
at the tornus of both fore and hind wings (com- 
pare Figs 61 and 64). 

The male genitalia of decoloraria can be recog- 
nised by the shape of the valvae, ampullae and 
anellar complex (Fig. 136). In the female, the 
form of the sterigma is diagnostic (Fig. 189). 

Distribution. The nine specimens examined 
were collected in Cuba and Jamaica. 

Remarks. The sex of the holotype was incor- 
rectly given as male in the original description 
(Walker, 1861: 541). 

The strong curvature of the aedeagus in this 
species is probably valid, and not an artifact of 
preparation, given the curvature (less pro- 
nounced) occurring in other species. 

Material examined. Cuba: 3$. Baracoa, lcf. 
Cayamas, 2$. Santiago, 1$. Jamaica: 1$ [holo- 
type]. Newcastle, 1$, viii.93. 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila jaspidata (Warren) 
(Figs 65, 190) 

Racheospila (?) jaspidata Warren, 1897: 430. 
Holotype $, in BMNH. Type locality: 
GUYANA. Label data: Type; Rio Demerara 
British Guiana; Racheospila jaspidata type $? 
Warr[en]; Racheolopha; Rothschild Bequest 
B[ritish] Mfuseum] 1939-1; Geometridae geni- 
talia slide No. 15049 $. [Examined.] 

Racheolopha jaspidata (Warren), 1900: 137. 

Drucia jaspidata (Warren), 1906: 416. 

Oospila jaspidata (Warren); Prout, 1912: 133; 
1933: 59. 

$ (Fig. 65). Fore wing length 10-12 mm. 
Antenna unknown. Frons and vertex brown. 
Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal surface 
dark green. Wings: ground colour dark green; 
markings reddish brown. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; blotch at apex large, extending to costa, 
extended posteriorly along termen to meet 
blotch at tornus; blotch at tornus smaller; discal 
spot small, brown. Hind wing: blotch at apex 
large, connected to blotch at tornus via termen; 
blotch at tornus small, not connected to blotch at 
anal margin; blotch at anal margin reduced to a 
line; discal spot small, brown. Hind leg with 
proximal spurs absent. Abdomen: basal crests 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



61 



dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder of 
dorsal surface reddish; sterna simple. 

Genitalia d"- Unknown. 

Genitalia 9 (fig- 190). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae very 
short, weakly sclerotized, not striated, antrum 
absent; bursa copulatrix very large; signum 
small. Anterior apophyses relatively long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila jaspidata is similar in 
appearance to excrescens, but lacks a brick-red 
marking at the base of the fore wing (compare PI. 
1:2, Figs 10 and 65). 

Oospila jaspidata may be distinguished from 
continuata by the redder colour of the wing 
markings and by the shape of the blotch at the 
apex of the fore wing, which is rounded in 
jaspidata and lacks the distinct apical emargin- 
ation of continuata (compare Figs 9 and 65). 

Distribution. Only two females were exam- 
ined, one from French Guiana, the other from 
Guyana. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, 19- Guyana: East 
Demerara-West Coast Berbice: Demerara River, 
19 [holotype]. 
Depositories: BMNH, USNM. 

Oospila longiplaga Warren 

(Figs 66, 137, 191) 

Oospila longiplaga Warren, 1909: 83; Prout, 
1912: 134; 1933: 57. LECTOTYPE 9, here 
designated, in BMNH. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Type; Fonte Boa, Amazonas, 
September 06. (S.M. Klages); Oospila longi- 
plaga type 9 Warr[en]; Rothschild Bequest 
B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; Geometridae geni- 
talia slide No. 15717 9- [Examined.] 

Cf, 9 (fig- 66). Fore wing length 12-13 mm. 
Female antenna bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; blotches cream or pale brown irrorated 
with dark brown, perimeters dark brown. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; blotch at apex large, 
approximately circular, extending to costa, not 
connected via termen to blotch at tornus; blotch 
at tornus long, extending to cover discal spot, 
extending 2/3 of anal margin, wider towards 
centre of wing, narrowing slightly towards ter- 
men; discal spot absent. Hind wing: blotch at 
apex large, relatively narrow, approximately 
rectangular but narrower where extended along 



costa, extending 1/2 length of termen, not con- 
nected to blotch at tornus; blotch at tornus large, 
approximately rectangular, extending 2/3 length 
of anal margin; blotch at anal margin absent; 
discal spot small, white or absent. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface cream; sternum A2 of male with brushes 
of long hair-scales present; elliptical sclerite on 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
of male present; sternum A8 of male strongly 
sclerotized, bifid. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 137). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: costal edge with small, subapical point; 
ampulla short, with pointed apex; sacculus 
weakly developed. Anellar complex: completely 
surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
broadly V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: 
vesica with short cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (fig- 191)- Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
strongly sclerotized and striated, antrum indis- 
tinct; corpus bursae large, approximately spheri- 
cal; signum very small. Anterior apophyses 
short. 

Diagnosis. The size and shape of the blotches 
distinguish longiplaga from most other species. 
Oospila longiplaga can be distinguished from 
lunicincta and ruptimacula by the large blotch at 
the tornus of the fore wing, which extends to the 
discal cell in longiplaga (compare PI. 1: 18, Figs 
66, 67 and 69). 

Oospila longiplaga may be distinguished from 
albicoma albicoma, albicoma nasuta, concinna 
and depressa by the absence of a blotch on the 
anal margin of the hind wing in longiplaga and by 
the long, rectangular blotch at the tornus of the 
hind wing (compare PI. 1: 11, 20, Figs 39-41, 66 
and 72). 

The male genitalia of longiplaga can be recog- 
nised by the presence of a small subapical exten- 
sion of the costal edge of the valvae (Fig. 137). 

Distribution. The three specimens examined 
were collected from the Amazonas region of 
Brazil. 

Material examined. Brazil: Amazonas: Fonte 
Boa, 19 [lectotype] ix.06 (Klages); 19 [paralec- 
totype] ix.06 (Klages); Alto Paraiso, 100 m, lcf, 
4.X.1985 (Becker). 

Depositories: BMNH, VOBB. 



62 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Oospila lunicincta (Warren) 
(Figs 67, 138, 192) 

Racheolcpha lunicincta Warren, 1909: 85. Holo- 
type cf, in BMNH. Type locality: PARA- 
GUAY. Label data: Type; Sapucay, Paraguay, 
16.ix.03 (W. Foster); fi[g] in Seitz 8; Racheolo- 
pha lunicincta type d" Warr[en]; Rothschild 
Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15724 cf. 
[Examined.] 

Auophyllodes lunicincta (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
131. 

Oospila lunicincta (Warren); Prout, 1933: 58. 

d\ $ (Fig. 67). Fore wing length 12-13 mm. 
Frons and vertex brown. Interantennal fillet 
white. Thorax: dorsal surface dark green. Wings: 
ground colour dark green; markings cream, 
irrorated with brown, with dark perimeters. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; subapical blotch small, 
not extending to costa, not connected via termen 
to blotch at tornus; blotch at tornus small; discal 
spot absent. Hind wing: blotch at apex large, not 
connected via termen to blotch at tornus; blotch 
at tornus small, not connected to blotch at anal 
margin; blotch at anal margin reduced to an 
inconspicuous crescent; discal spot small, white. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests 
dark brown, distal crests paler; remainder of 
dorsal surface cream with pink and brown flecks; 
male lacking brushes of long hair-scales on ster- 
num A2; elliptical sclerite absent from interseg- 
mental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 of male; 
sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, deeply 
excavated. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 138). Uncus short, pointed. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: ampulla broad, robust, margin denticu- 
late; sacculus not developed. Anellar complex 
surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate 
broad, emarginated, with posteriorly directed 
extension. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
with small cornutus. 

Genitalia § (Fig. 192). Ostium: with pocket 
on each side; sterigma absent. Bursa copulatrix: 
ductus bursae strongly sclerotized, not striated, 
antrum absent; corpus bursae small; signum 
quite large. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. In general, lunicincta can be distin- 
guished from other species with cream or pale 
brown blotches by the smaller size of its blotches. 
It can be distinguished from albicoma albicoma, 
concinna and longiplaga by the small size of the 



blotch at the tornus of the fore wing, which does 
not extend to cover the discal spot in lunicincta 
(compare PI. 1: 11, Figs 39, 41, 66 and 67). 
Oospila lunicincta can be distinguished from albi- 
coma nasuta by the absence of a short, digitate 
extension of the blotch at the tornus of the fore 
wing (compare Figs 40 and 67). 

The shape of the blotch at the apex of the fore 
wing distinguishes lunicincta from depressa. In 
lunicincta this blotch narrows towards the costa 
and does not fill the apex as it does in depressa 
(compare PI. 1: 20, Figs 67 and 72). 

The male genitalia of lunicincta can be recogn- 
ised by the shape of the valva and the ampulla 
(Fig. 138). The female genitalia can be recogn- 
ised by the presence of a pocket on each side of 
the ostium (Fig. 192). 

Distribution. The 6 specimens examined were 
collected in Peru, Paraguay, and Brazil. 

Material examined. Peru: Divisoria, 1500 m, 
lcf, 20-23. vi. 1982 (Covell). Paraguay: Para- 
guari: Sapucay, lcf [holotype] 16.ix.03 (Foster). 
Brazil: Minas Geraes: Uberaba, 3cf (Le Moult). 
Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, 1$, xi. (Smith). 
Depositories. BMNH, CMNH, CVCJ. 

Oospila pellucida Prout 

(Figs 68, 139, 193) 

Oospila pellucida Prout, 1916: 170; 1932: 56. 
LECTOTYPE cf, here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: PERU. Label data: type; La 
Oroya, R[io] Inambari, Peru, September] 
1904. 3100 ft, dry seas[on] (G. Ockenden); 
Oospila pellucida cf Prout type; Rothschild 
Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15707 cf. 
[Examined.] 

d\ $ (Fig. 68). Fore wing length 11-14 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: dark green; blotches 
absent; markings brown. Fore wing: costa pale 
brown; band along termen narrow; discal spot 
small, brown. Hind wing: as fore wing; anterior 
discal spot small, white; posterior discal spot 
small, brown. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; with 
white area around crests enclosed by pink line, 
remainder cream; male lacking brushes of long 
hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite on 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
absent; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, 
deeply excavated to form knobbed processes. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



63 



Genitalia O" (Fig. 139). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: ampulla large, robust, margin denticulate; 
sacculus extended into short, pointed projection. 
Anellar complex: surrounding aedeagus; ven- 
trally V-shaped; dorsal component modified into 
an approximately rectangular plate with denticu- 
late posterior margin. Vinculum: ventral plate 
squarish. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: short cor- 
nutus on vesica. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 193). Ostium: sterigma 
large. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
strongly sclerotized and striated, with entry point 
of the ductus seminalis expanded and sclerotized, 
antrum indistinct; corpus bursae large; signum 
small. Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. The band along the termen of pellu- 
cida is uniformly narrow and not expanded into 
blotches, which distinguishes it from confluaria 
and dicraspeda (compare Figs 42, 47 and 68). 
Males can also be distinguished from those of 
confluaria by the absence of a brush of long 
hair-like scales on the hind tibia. 

Oospila pellucida can be distinguished from 
lacteguttata by the lack of blotches and by the 
absence of the proximal pair of spurs on the hind 
tibia. 

The darker ground colour of the wings and the 
presence of a brown, not reddish, band along the 
termen distinguishes pellucida from ciliaria. 

The male genitalia of pellucida can be recogn- 
ised by the modification of the dorsal part of the 
anellar complex into a rectangular plate with a 
denticulate margin, and by the shape of the 
ampulla (Fig. 139). The female genitalia of pellu- 
cida can be recognised by the expansion and 
sclerotization of the ductus seminalis at the pos- 
terior of the ductus bursae (Fig. 193). 

Distribution. Four specimens were examined 
from Peru and two from Colombia. 

Material examined. Colombia: Risaralda: 
Siato, Rio Siato, slopes of Choco, 1500 m, 2$, 
ix.09. Peru: Puno: La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 940 
m, lo" [lectotype], lcf [paralectotype] dry sea- 
son, ix.1904 {Ockenden). Carabaya: Tinguri, 
1000 m, Id" [paralectotype] dry season, viii.1904 
{Ockenden). La Union, Rio Huacamayo, 610 m, 
19 [paralectotype] wet season, xi.1904 {Ock- 
enden). 

Depository: BMNH. 



Oospila ruptimacula Warren 
(PI. 1: 18, Figs 69, 140, 194) 

Oospila ruptimacula Warren, 1901: 448; Prout, 
1912: 133; 1932: 58. Holotype d\ in BMNH. 
Type locality: ECUADOR. Label data: Type; 
Paramba [3500 ft 11.97 struck out ]; 8b IIX IX; 
Oospila ruptimacula type cf Warr[en]; Roths- 
child Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15723 cf. 
[Examined.] 

Oospila aliphera Dognin, 1923: 20. Holotype O", 
in USNM. Type locality: BOLIVIA. Label 
data: Bolivia: Rio Songo, 750 m {Fassl); Geni- 
talia slide By MAC 57762 USNM. [Examined.] 
Syn.n. 

Oospila ruptimacula aliphera Dognin; Prout, 
1933: 58. 

Oospila ruptimacula curtimacula Prout, 1933: 58. 
LECTOTYPE &, here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: COLOMBIA. Label data: 
Type; Gorgona Island, Colombia, at light, 200 
ft. 15.10.24. S[ain]t George Exped[itio]n. C. 
L. Collenette; Brit[ish] Mus[eum] 1925^88; 
Seitz VIII; Oospila ruptimacula curtimacula cf 
type Prout; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15721 cf. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Q\ $ (PI. 1: 18, Fig. 69). Fore wing length 15-20 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface very dark green. Wings: ground 
colour very dark green; markings cream, with 
brown perimeters and brown irrorations. Fore 
wing: costa pale brown; blotch at apex rounded, 
connected to blotch at tornus by brown line along 
termen; blotch at tornus approximately rectangu- 
lar or wedge-shaped, usually narrowing distally; 
discal spot absent. Hind wing: blotch at apex 
large, extending 1/2 length of termen, irrorations 
more concentrated at anterior, connected to 
blotch at tornus via dark brown line along ter- 
men; blotch at tornus long, narrow, extending 
2/3 length of anal margin; no distinct blotch at 
anal margin; anterior discal spot small, white; 
posterior discal spot sometimes small, white, 
sometimes absent (as in form curtimacula). Hind 
leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair- 
like scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface green; male lacking brushes of long hair- 
scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent 
from intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and 
A3 of male; sternum A8 of male emarginated. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 140). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 



64 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Valva: deeply excavated; ampulla narrow, digi- 
tate, apex denticulate; sacculus extended into 
long, narrow, sclerotized process. Anellar com- 
plex: completely surrounding aedeagus; dorsal 
component extended to emarginated plate with 
denticulate apex. Vinculum: ventral plate broad, 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
with cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 194). Ostium: sterigma 
deeply excavated (deeper than in decoloraria, 
Fig. 136). Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae long, 
strongly sclerotized and striated with large 
antrum, widening distally; corpus bursae small, 
spherical; signum small. Anterior apophyses 
short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila ruptimacula can be distin- 
guished from other species with cream blotches 
by the presence of patches of concentrated dark 
brown irro rations within the blotches. The blotch 
at the apex of the hind wing is particularly dark in 
this respect. The shape of the blotch at the tornus 
of the fore wing distinguishes ruptimacula from 
albicoma albicoma, concinna, and longiplaga. In 
ruptimacula this blotch does not extend to cover 
the discal spot as it does in the others (compare 
PI. 1: 11 and 18, Figs 39, 41, 66 and 69). Oospila 
ruptimacula can be distinguished from albicoma 
nasuta, depressa, and lunicincta by the size of the 
blotch at the tornus of the hind wing, which is 
much larger in ruptimacula (compare PI. 1: 18 
and 20, Figs 40, 67, 69 and 72). 

The male genitalia of ruptimacula can be rec- 
ognised by the shape of the valva and the modi- 
fied form of the anellar complex (Fig. 140). The 
female genitalia can be recognised by the shape 
of the sterigma (Fig. 194). 

Distribution. This species is widely distributed 
in tropical Central and South America. 

Material examined. Belize: Stann Creek: 
Stann Creek Valley, 1$ (Bilaux). Costa Rica: 
Alajuela: Estacion Pitilla, 9 km South of Santa 
Cecilia, 700 m, 1$, 18.V.1988 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs). Puntarenas: Fila Esquinas, 35 km South 
of Palmar Norte, 8°45'x83°20', 150 m, 2cT, 1$, 
7-8. i. 1983 {Janzen, Hallwachs). San Jose: Esta- 
cion Carrillo, Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, 
700 m, ld\ viii.1984 {Chacon, Chacon); lcf, 
iv.1985 {Chacon, Chacon). Colombia: Cauca: 
Gorgona Island, 60 m, lcf [lectotype of rupti- 
macula curtimacula] 15.x. 24 {Collenette); 1$ 
[paralectotype of ruptimacula curtimacula] 
17.x. 24 {Collenette); lcf [paralectotype of rupti- 
macula curtimacula] 21.xi.24 {Collenette); lcf 
[paralectotype of ruptimacula curtimacula] 



[28].x.24 {Collenette). Ecuador: Imbabura: 
Paramba, lcf [holotype of ruptimacula]. 
Chimborazo: Chimbo, 1$ {Mathan) l.[ix].1892. 
Peru: Huanuco: Pozuzo, 1$. Madre de Dios: 
Tambopata Reserve, 30 km South West of 
Puerto Maldonado, 300 m, lcf, 1 6-22. x. 1983 
{Covell). Puno: South East Peru, La Oroya, Rio 
Inambari, 910 m, lcf, dry season, v. 1905 {Ock- 
enden); 940 m, 2cf, wet season, iii.05 {Ock- 
enden); South East Peru, Santo Domingo, 1800 
m, lcf, xi.1904 {Ockenden); South East Peru, 
lCf; Yahuarmayo, 360 m, 1$, v-vii.1912 {Wat- 
kins). Peru: Cuzco: Quincemil, 730 m, lcf, 
viii.1962 (Pena). Bolivia: Rio Songo, 750 m, lcf 
[holotype of aliphera] (Fassl). Brazil: Amazonas: 
Fonte Boa, lcf, v. 1906 {Klages); Sao Paulo de 
Olivenca, lcf; Hyntanahan, Rio Purus, 2cf, 
iii. 1922 {Klages). 

Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, CMNH, 
CVCJ, INBio, USNM. 

Oospila venezuelata (Walker) comb.n. 
(PI. 1: 19, Figs 70, 141, 195) 

Comibaena venezuelata Walker, 1861: 570. LEC- 
TOTYPE cf, here designated, in BMNH. 
Type locality: VENEZUELA. Label data: 
47g; Venezuela; 7. Comibaena venezuelata; 
South America; Type; Geometridae genitalia 
slide No. 15782 cf • [Examined.] 

Comibaena venezuelata Walker; Druce, 1892: 87. 

Auophyllodes venezuelata (Walker); Prout, 1912: 
131; 1932:53. 

[Auophyllodes venezuelata ab. connexa Prout, 
1932: 53 Infra-subspecific name.] 

Auophyllodes venezuelata cellata Prout, 1932: 53. 
Holotype Q, m BMNH. Type locality: 
MEXICO. Label data: Mexique oriental 
Tabasco W. Gugelmann, l er trimestre 1914; 
Ex Oberthiir Collection] Britfish] Musfeum] 
1927-3; Auophyllodes venezuelata cellata $ 
type Prout; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15786 $. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Comibaena invasata Walker, 1866: 1611; Druce, 
1892: Table 49, Fig. 18. Holotype cf, in 
BMNH. Type locality: COLOMBIA. Label 
data: 65 86; S[an]ta Marta; Comibaena inva- 
sata; Type. [Examined.] Synonymized by 
Prout, 1932: 53. 

Auophyllodes invasata (Walker); Prout, 1912: 
131. 

[Auophyllodes venezuelata ab. invasata Prout, 
1932: 53. Infra-subspecific name.] 

[Auophylla invasata ab. perrupta Warren, 1900: 
132. Infra-subspecific name]. 

Comibaena belisama Druce, 1892: 87. Holotype 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



65 



Cf, in BMNH. Type locality: PANAMA. 
Label data: Type; Vfolcan] de Chiriqui, 
2-3000 ft. Champion; Godman-Salvin Collec- 
tion] 1903-4. Bfiologia] Cfentrali] A[mericana] 
Lepfidoptera] Hetferocera]. Comibaena 
belisama, Druce; Comibaena belisama cf type 
Druce; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15779 
d" [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Auophyllodes belisama (Druce); Prout, 1912: 
131; 1932: 53. 

Auophylla ambusta Warren, 1900: 131. Holotype 
Cf , in BMNH. Type locality: VENEZUELA. 
Label data: Type; Palma Sola, Venezuela. 96 
(Whytmann); Rothschild Bequest Bfritish] 
M[useum] 1939-1; auophylla ambusta type d" 
Warr[en]; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15785 Cf- [Examined.] 

Auophyllodes ambusta (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
131; 1932: 53. 

Auophyllodes partita Prout, 1912, 131; 1932: 53. 
Holotype §, in BMNH. Type locality: 
PANAMA. Label data: La Choerra. Panama. 
1 IV to 15 V 98. C.H. Dolby-Tylor. 98-146; 
Auophyllodes partita type Prout; Geometridae 
genitalia slide No. 15780 $. [Examined.] 
Syn.n. 

Cf , $ (PI. 1: 19, Fig. 70). Fore wing length 9-12 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; markings varying in extent, cream 
with dark brown. Fore wing: costa pale brown; 
termen with blotches merged to form band of 
varying width, often broader at tornus; band 
sometimes cream along entire length (as in form 
venezuelata), usually cream proximally and dark 
brown distally (PI. 1: 19), sometimes entirely 
dark brown (as in form belisama); discal spot 
usually a short brown line surrounded by cream 
area; cream area around discal spot may be 
continuous with cream area at tornus, sometimes 
discal spot reduced, occasionally absent. Hind 
wing: termen with blotches merged to form a 
broad band, colour as in fore wing; discal spot 
usually absent, occasionally a short brown line 
surrounded by a small white area. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; remainder of dorsal 
surface cream; male lacking brushes of long 
hair-scales on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite 
absent from intersegmental membrane of sterna 
A2 and A3 in male; sternum A8 in male not 
strongly sclerotized, simple. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 141). Uncus a narrow bar, 



not extended. Socii reduced. Gnathos not fused, 
components large, not curved. Valva: costa 
extended into curved projection with serrated 
margin; apex sometimes with short process (in 
larger specimens) or rounded (Fig. 141); ampulla 
absent; sacculus not extended. Anellar complex: 
V-shaped, not surrounding aedeagus. Vinculum: 
ventral plate V- or U-shaped. Coremata absent. 
Aedeagus: vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 195). Ostium displaced ante- 
riorly, intersegmental membrane of sternum A7 
and A8 extended; sterigma a rectangular bar 
with a short anteriorly-directed projection on 
each side. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae short, 
weakly sclerotized and not striated, antrum 
absent; corpus bursae with signum small. Ante- 
rior apophyses short. 

Distribution. Widely distributed throughout 
tropical Central and South America. 

Diagnosis. Oospila venezuelata is unlikely to be 
confused with any other species from its wing 
markings, but may be distinguished from astigma 
by the broader band along the termen of its hind 
wings (compare PI. 1:6 and 19, Figs 22 and 70). 
Males of these two species can also be distin- 
guished by the shape of the anellar complex 
(compare Figs 97 and 141). 

The female genitalia of venezuelata can be 
recognised by the displacement of the ostium and 
extension of the intersegmental membrane 
between sternum A7 and A8 (Fig. 195). The 
displacement of vein R 2 in the fore wings such 
that its point of divergence from R 3 lies distal to 
that of vein R 5 , also distinguishes venezuelata 
from other species. 

Material examined. Mexico: Tabasco: 1$ 
[holotype of venezuelata cellata] l er trimestre, 
1914 (Gugelmann). Veracruz: Huatuxco, 1$- 
Quintana Roo: X-can, Nueva, 140cf, 9$, 
vii.1971, x.1973, viii.1975, viii,x,xi,,xii,1980, i,ii- 
,iii,iv,v,vi,vii,viii,ix,x,xi.l981 (Welling). Guate- 
mala: South Geronimo, 2? (Champion). Santa 
Rosa: Barberena, lcf- Izabel: Cayuga, lcf 
(Schaus, Barnes). Sacatepequez: Duenas, 1? 
(Champion). Nicaragua: Rio San Juan: Chon- 
tales, lcf. Costa Rica: Alajuela: Cerro Campana, 
650 m East side Volcan Cacao, 6 km North West 
Dos Rios, lcf, 15. i. 1988 (Janzen, Hallwachs). 
Finca San Gabriel, 2 km South West of Dos 
Rios, 600 m, 7cf, v.1989 (GNP Biodiversity 
Survey). Guanacaste: Estacion Mengo, South 
West side of Volcan Cacao, W85°28'10" 
N10°55'43", 1100 m, lcf, ii.1988 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 4cf , 10.ii.1988 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 2cf , 



66 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



vi.1988 (Janzen, Hallwachs). Casa Roberto, 
Estacion Pitilla, 7 km South of Santa Cecilia, 
W85°25'33" Nll°00'18", 500 m, 2d\ v.1988 
(GNP Biodiversity Survey); 2d", i.1989 (GNP 
Biodiversity Survey). Estacion Pitilla, 9 km South 
of Santa Cecilia, 700 m, lcf (Moraga, Rios). 
Limon: Sixaola River, lcf. San Jose: San Jose, 
2cf, 2$ (Schmidt). Panama: La Chorrera, 1$ 
[holotype of partita] l.iv-15.v.98 (Dolby-Tylor). 
Canal Zone: Corozal, near Balboa, 1$, 20.vi.24 
(Collenette). Chiriqui: Volcan de Chiriqui, 
610-910 m, Id" [holotype of belisama] (Cham- 
pion). Id* (Walker). Trinidad: Saint George 
East: Caparo, l£ (Birch). 1?, 10.vi-2.vii (Kaye); 
Arima Valley, 800-1200, Id", 1$, 10-22.ii.1964 
(Rozen, Wygodzinsky). Venezuela: Id" [lecto- 
type of venezuelata]. Cucuta, 2d", 1$. Palma 
Sola: Id" [holotype of ambusta] 1896 (Whyt- 
mann); Id" [paralectotype of venezuelata]; 1$, 
1896 [paralectotype of venezuelata] (Whytmann); 
1$ (Whytmann); Id", 4$. Carabobo: Valencia, 
lcf; San Esteban, near Pueno-Cabello, Id" 
(Sagan). Distrito Federal: Caracas, Id". Colom- 
bia: Boyaca: Muzo, 400-800 m, 5cf (Fassl). 
Magdalena: Santa Marta, lcf [holotype of inva- 
sata]; Suert Cabel, 1?, 76 (Smith); Minca, 610 m, 
Id" (Smith); Don Amo, 610 m, lcf (Smith); lcf. 
Bonda, m, lcf (Smith). Meta: East Colombia, 
Upper Rio Negro, 800 m, 6cf (Fassl). Peru: lcf. 
Bolivia: Santa Cruz: East Bolivia, Buenavista, 
750 m, lcf, viii.06-iv.07 (Steinbach). Cocha- 
bamba: Charaplaya, 65°W 16°S, 1300 m, lcf, 
iv.01 (Simons); lcf (Germain). 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, INBio. 

Oospila confundaria (Moschler) 
(Figs 71, 142, 196) 

Racheospila confundaria Moschler, 1890: 242. 
LECTOTYPE $, here designated, in MNHU. 
Type locality: PUERTO RICO. Type; Por- 
torico, Mus[eum] Krug. 87; Typus; Zool. 
Mus[eum] Berlin; Confundaria Moschl[er]; 
MAC genitalia slide No. 018; [Examined.] 

Oospila confundaria (Moschler); Prout, 1912: 
133; 1932: 55. 

Racheolopha coerulea Warren, 1906: 421. Holo- 
type cf , in USNM. Type locality: GUYANA. 
Label data: British Guiana: Omai; Schaus Col- 
lection]; Type No. 9188 U.S.N.M.; Genitalia 
Slide By MAC No. 57731 U.S.N.M. [Exam- 
ined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila coerulea (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 
1932: 55. 

Oospila coerulea aphenges Prout, 1932: 55. Holo- 
type Cf , in BMNH. Type locality: BRAZIL. 



Label data: Type H[olo]t[ype]; 39. 27. Uru- 
cum, 15 miles S[outh] of Corumba. 650 ft, 
16-23. xi. 27. Mato Grosso. C.L. Collenette; 
3174; Oospila coerulea aphenges cf type 
Prout; Joicey Bequest. Brit[ish] Mus[eum] 
1934-120; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 
15695. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Racheolopha derasa Warren, 1906: 422. Holo- 
type cf, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: French Guiana: 
Maroni R[iver], S[ain]t Jean, vii. 1904; Schaus 
Collection]; Type No. 9191 U.S.N.M.; Geni- 
talia Slide By MAC No. 57730 U.S.N.M. 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

Oospila derasa (Warren); Prout, 1912: 134; 1932: 
55. 

Oospila sesquiplaga Prout, 1912: 135; 1932: 55. 
Holotype $, in HECO. Type locality: BRA- 
ZIL. Label data: Holotype; Brazil; ns; t., 
1910, L.B. Prout; 647; [blank green label]; 
Oospila sesquiplaga Prout type; Type Lep: No. 
2519 Oospila sesquiplaga Prout Hope Dept. 
Oxford. [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Cf, $ (Fig. 71). Fore wing length 10-15 mm. 
Antenna of female simple. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface dark green. Wings: ground colour dark 
green; markings dark brown. Fore wing: costa 
pale brown; blotch at apex usually absent, some- 
times present but very small (as in form ses- 
quiplaga); blotch at tornus often small (as in 
form derasa), sometimes absent; termen 
unmarked or sometimes with narrow brown band 
along its length; discal spot brown. Hind wing: 
blotch at apex absent; blotch at tornus usually 
absent, sometimes present but very small; blotch 
at anal margin absent; anterior discal spot usually 
absent, sometimes small, white; posterior discal 
spot usually absent, sometimes small, brown. 
Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; brush of long 
hair-like scales on male tibia. Abdomen: basal 
crests dark brown, distal crests paler; cream area 
surrounding crests; remainder of dorsal surface 
green; sternum A2 of male with brushes of long 
hair-scales present; elliptical sclerite present on 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
of male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, 
bifid. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 142). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
cleft; broad apically; ampulla narrow, curved, 
articulating close to base of valva, lacking teeth; 
sacculus lobed with very short, pointed apical 
extension. Anellar complex: completely sur- 
rounding aedeagus. Vinculum: ventral plate con- 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



67 



spicuously narrow, V-shaped. Coremata absent. 
Aedeagus curved; vesica with small cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 (Fig. 196). Ostium: sterigma 
large, elliptical. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae 
long, not strongly sclerotized, weakly striated, 
antrum indistinct; corpus bursae large; signum 
large. Anterior apophyses long. 

Diagnosis. Oospila confundaria has similar 
wing markings to decoloraria (compare Figs 64 
and 71) from which males can be distinguished by 
the presence of a hair pencil on the hind tibia of 
confundaria and females can be distinguished by 
the simple antennae of confundaria. Oospila 
confundaria can be distinguished from margi- 
nata, tricamerata, and obsolescens by the smaller 
size of the wing blotches or their absence, and by 
the absence of large brown discal spots on the 
hind wings (compare PI. 1: 16, Figs 54-56 and 
71). 

Distribution. O. confundaria is the most 
widely distributed species of Oospila occurring 
throughout the tropical areas of Central and 
South America and on many Carribbean islands. 

Remark. The abdomen of the holotype of O. 
sesquiplaga is incorrectly associated. 

Material examined. Cuba: Matanzas: 
Cienaga, Zapata, near Playa Larga, 1$. 
Jamaica: Baron Hill, Trelawny, 19- Dominican 
Republic: La Vega, 15 km North Jarabacoa, 240 
m, 1$, 21.vii.1987 (Rawlins, Davidson). Puerto 
Rica, 1$ [lectotype]. St. Lucia: 1$ (Br[ajnch). 
Trinidad: Curepe, 9. i. 1980, lcf (Cock). Guate- 
mala: Chejel, lcf- Izabel: Cayuga, 2$. Costa 
Rica: Avangarez, 2cf . Alajuela: Finca San Gab- 
riel, 2 km South West of Dos Rios, 600 m, W85 
23'50" N10 53' 19" 19, i.1988 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); Estacion Pitilla, 700 m, 9 km South 
Santa Cecilia, lcf, 18. vi. 1988 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 19, vi.1988 (Espinosa); 19, vii.1988 
(Espinosa, Chaves); 3cf, 19, viii.1988 (Scoble, 
Brooks); Finca La Campana, El Ensayo, 7 km 
West Dos Rios, lcf. Cartago: Juan Vinas, 19- 
Guanacaste: Las Canas, Rio Carobici, 19- Casa 
Oeste, Cerro El Hacha, 12 km South East La 
Cruz, 300 m, 29, x.1987 (Chacon); lcf, 29, 
xi.1987 (Chacon); Cerro El Hacha, 300 m, 12 km 
South East La Cruz, lcf, 19; Derrumbe, Esta- 
cion Mengo, 1400 m, West side Volcan Cacao, 
19; Estacion Mengo, 1100 m, South West side of 
Volcan Cacao, W85°28'10" N10°55'43" lcf, 
vi.1988 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 39 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs); Finca Jenny, 300 m, 31 km North 
Liberia, 2cf, 39; Santa Rosa National Park, 300 
m, 39, 6.vi.l978 (Janzen); lcf, 12.vi.1978 (Jan- 



zen); 2cf, 19, 2.vii.l978 (Janzen); lcf, 
12.xii. 1978-10.i. 1979 (Janzen); 1$, 18-20.V.1979 
(Janzen, Hallwachs); 1$, 19-21.vi.1979 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs); 1$, 22-24.vi.1979 (Janzen); lcf, 
27-30.vi.1979 (Janzen); lcf, 10-12.xi.1979 (Jan- 
zen); lcf, 19, 23-25.xi.1979 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); lcf, 26-28.xi.1979 (Janzen); 1$, 
7-9. xii. 1979 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 1$, 
21-24.xii.1979 (Janzen); 2cf, 2-ll.iii.1980 (Jan- 
zen, Hallwachs); 29, 1. v. 1980 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 19, 5-6. v. 1980 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 
lCf, 19, 9-11.V.1980 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 29, 
16-18. vii. 1980 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 1$, 
9-17.iii.1981 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 1$, 
l-S.i.1982 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 1-15.U982 
(Janzen, Hallwachs); 29, 10-20. iii. 1982 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs); lcf, xii. 1982 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 
300 m, 6cf , 19, i.1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 
ii.1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 29, iii. 1983 (Jan- 
zen, Hallwachs); 19, 3.vi.l983 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); lcf, 19> iv.1984 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 
lCf, 29, v.1984 (Janzen, Hallwachs); lcf, 
15-17.iii.1986 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 4 km East 
Casetilla, Rincon National Park, 1$, 14.ii.1983 
(Janzen, Hallwachs); Estacion Maritza, 600 m, 
West side Volcan Orosi, lcf, v. 1988 (GNP 
Biodiversity Survey); Finca Jenny, 30 km north 
Liberia, W85°34'27" N10°51'55", lcf, xii. 1987 
(GNP Biodiversity Survey); lcf, i.1988 (GNP 
Biodiversity Survey); lcf, 39, viii.1988 (GNP 
Biodiversity Survey). Heredia: Chilamate, 
Heredia, 2cf, 19, 9.viii.l986 (Covell). Limon: 
Sixaola River, 2 cf; Cerro Tortuguero, Parque 
Nacional Tortuguero, 100 m, 3cf, 29 iv.1989 
(Aguillar, Solano); lcf, x.1989 (Solano). Puntar- 
enas: Fila Esquinas, 35 km South of Palmar 
Norte, 150 m, 8°45' x 83°20', lcf, 7-8.U983 
(Janzen, Hallwachs). Panama: Veraguas: Vera- 
gua, lcf. French Guiana: Guyane: St. Jean du 
Maroni, lcf [holotype of derasa]; 12cf, 139 ( Le 
Moult); St. Laurent du Maroni, lcf, 1923 
(Aymes); 7 cf, 39; Nouveau Chantier, lcf; 19 
(Bar). Surinam: Sipalawini: Thibiti area, Kabo 
Creek (partly swampy, primary forest on hilly 
slopes circa 2 km from river), 29- Guyana: 
Bought at Georgetown, lcf. Mazaruni-Potaro: 
Omai: 1905, lcf [holotype of coerulea] lcf, 11$; 
Tumatumari, lcf, xii. 1907 (Klages); Kartabo 
Point, lcf, 19- E QSt Demerara-West Coast Ber- 
bice: Rockstone, Essequebo, 19- Venezuela: 
Bolivar: Maripa, Caura River, lcf (Klages). 
Anacoco, 60 m, lcf. Guririo Caroni, 100 m, lcf • 
88 km South El Dorado, lcf, 26-28. vi. 1984, lcf 
(Covell); Las Clarita, lcf, 19, 28.vi.1984 (Cov- 
ell). Lara: Canon Panzacola, Guarico, lcf- 
Guarico, Hato Masaguaral, 45 km South Cal- 
abozo, lcf, 19- Colombia: Meta: East Colombia: 



68 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



Upper Rio Negro, 800, Id; Id. Peru: Madre de 
Dios: Tambopata Reserve, 300 m, 30 km South 
West Puerto Maldonado, 6 d, 16-22.X.1983 
(Covelt). Bolivia: Santa Cruz: River Yapacani, 
600 m, lcf- Paraguay: Amambay: Parque Natio- 
nal Cerro Cora, Id". Paraguai: Sapucay, ld\ 
6.ix.02 (Foster); Id, 30.X.04 (Foster); 26.2 km 
South East Ybycui, Parque Nacional Ybycui, 
3d". Brazil: Minas Geraes: Uberaba, lcf (Le 
Moult). East Brazil: Tutaya, 2 d (Moss); 1$ 
[holotype of sesquiplaga]. Perambuca, 4d- Acre: 
Rio Jurua, 4°40'S 66°40'W, lcf, 20.X.74. Amazo- 
nas: Humayta, River Madeira, lcf; Sao Paulo de 
Olivenca, lcf. Bauru, Sao Paulo, lcf. Mato 
Grosso do Sul: 15 miles South Corumba, Uru- 
cum, 200 m, lcf [holotype of coerulea aphenges] 
23.xi.27 (Collenette); Burity, 30 miles North East 
of Cuyaba, 690 m, 2cf , l-14.vii.27 (Collenette); 6 
Cf, 1886 (Germain); Tombador, 16 miles South 
of Diammantino, 460 m, lcf, 20-27. viii. 27 (Col- 
lenette). Para: Unt. Amaz. Taperinha: below 
Santarem, lcf, 2 1-31. viii. 1927 (Zerny); lcf, 1$, 
l-7.ix.27. Rondonia: Calama, River Madeira, 
below River Machados, Id", viii-x.07 (Hoff- 
mann). Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Id, x. 
Santa Catarina: Santa Catarina, Nova Bremen, 
850 m, Id, xi.37 (Hoffmann). Sao Paulo: Alto 
de Serra, Santos, 800 m, 1$, 3.xii.l2. 

Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, CVCJ, HECO, 
INBio, MDHG, MNHU, UCVM, USNM. 

Oospila depressa Warren 

(PI. 1:20, Figs 72, 143, 197) 

Oospila depressa Warren, 1905: 45; Prout, 1912: 
133; 1933: 58. LECTOTYPE $, here desig- 
nated, in BMNH. Type locality: COSTA 
RICA. Label data: Type; Tuis, Costa Rica; 
Oospila depressa type °- Warr[en]; isthoxia; 
Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15719 $. 
[Examined.] 

Oospila semiviridis Warren, 1909: 84; Prout, 
1912: 134; 1933: 57. Holotype d, in BMNH. 
Type locality: PERU. Label data: Type; La 
Oroya R[io] Inambari, S[outh] E[ast] Peru, 
3100 ft, wet s[eason], March 05. (G. Ock- 
enden); Oospila semiviridis type d Warrfen]; 
Rothschild Bequest B[ritish] M[useum] 1939-1; 
Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15716 d. 
[Examined.] Syn.n. 

d, $ (PI. 1: 20, Fig. 72). Fore wing length 11-15 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: ground colour 
dark green; blotches cream or pale brown, with 



dark brown striations and perimeters. Fore wing: 
costa pale brown; blotch at apex of variable size, 
rounded, extending to costa, not connected to 
blotch at tornus via termen; blotch at tornus 
variable in size, but never large enough to cover 
discal spot; discal spot small, brown. Hind wing: 
blotch at apex large; blotch at tornus smaller, 
approximately circular; blotch at anal margin 
reduced to small lip; discal spot white. Hind leg: 
proximal spurs absent; brush of long hair-like 
scales absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark 
brown, distal crests paler; with pink and brown 
flecks around crests, remainder of dorsal surface 
cream; sternum A2 of male with brushes of long 
hair-scales present; elliptical sclerite present on 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
of male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized, 
deeply emarginated. 

Genitalia d (Fig. 143). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: cleft; ampulla short, with serrated apical 
margin; sacculus extended into narrow, sclero- 
tized process. Anellar complex: completely sur- 
rounding aedeagus, extended posteriorly into 
tongue-shaped process. Vinculum: ventral plate 
V-shaped. Coremata absent. Aedeagus: vesica 
rarely with small cornutus. 

Genitalia $ (Fig. 197). Ostium: sterigma rect- 
angular. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae strongly 
sclerotized and striated, antrum absent; corpus 
bursae small, spherical; signum quite large. 
Anterior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila depressa can be distin- 
guished from albicoma albicoma and concinna by 
the shape and extent of the blotch at the tornus 
of the fore wing. In depressa this blotch is 
smaller, never extends to cover the discal spot 
and is wedge-shaped, tapering gradually towards 
the termen, and never with an abrupt constric- 
tion (compare PI. 1: 11 and 20, Figs 39, 41 and 
72). The absence of a digitate extension of the 
blotch at the tornus of the fore wing distinguishes 
depressa from albicoma nasuta (compare PI. 1: 
20, Figs 40 and 72). 

The small, approximately circular blotch at the 
tornus of the hind wing in depressa distinguishes 
it from longiplaga in which this blotch is longer 
and approximately rectangular (compare PI. 1: 
20, Figs 66 and 72). The large blotch at the apex 
of the fore wing distinguishes depressa from 
lunicincta (compare PI. 1: 20, Figs 67 and 72). 

The male genitalia of depressa can be recogn- 
ised by the small tongue-shaped posterior exten- 
sion of the anellar complex (Fig. 143). The 
female genitalia can be recognised by the distinc- 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 
tive shape of the sterigma (Fig. 197). 

Distribution. Material was examined from 
Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, Ven- 
ezuela, Peru and Bolivia. 

Material examined. Guatemala: Izabel: 
Cayuga, 1$, vi. (Schaus and Barnes); lcf, 3$; 
lCf , v. (Schaus, Barnes); Che j el, lcf, 1$; near 
Matias de Galvez, 1$; Quirigua, 1$. Belize: 
Belize, 1$; Rio Grande, Id", xii.1932 {White); 
19. Toledo: Punta Gorda, 1$ x.1935 (White). 
Costa Rica: Canta Rana, 300 m, 1$ (Herbulot). 
Cartago: Tuis, 1°. [lectotype of depressa]; 29 
[paralectotypes of depressa]; Sitio 1$, v; Juan 
Vinas, 760 m, lcf, v. (Schaus); 3cf , 1$; Moravia 
de Chirripo, 1000 m, 1$, lO.v.1983 (Janzen, 
Hallwachs). Guanacaste: Rincon National Park, 
4 km East Casetilla, 750 m, 1$, 22.V.1982 (Jan- 
zen, Hallwachs); lcf, 8.x. 1982 (Janzen, Hall- 
wachs); 4 km East Casetilla 750 m, lcf, 
ll.iv.1983 (Janzen, Hallwachs); Mirador Ad., 
900 m, 1$, 29.iii.1984 (Janzen, Hallwachs); 4 km 
West Station Cecilia, 250 m, lcf, 25. ii. 1985 
(Janzen, Hallwachs); 2 km South- West Station 
Cecilia, 300 m, lcf, 25.xii.1984. Heredia: La 
Selva Biological Station, Puerto Viejo de 
Sarapiqui, 40 m, 19, i v. 1987 (Chavarria). 
Limon: Cerro Tortuguero, North edge Tortu- 
guero National Park, 0-100 m, 29, 30.V.1984 
(Janzen, Hallwachs); Guapiles, 19- Osa Penin- 
sula: Sirena Corcovado National Park, 2cf, 
5-11. i. 1981 (Janzen, Hallwachs). Puntarenas: 
San Vito, 19; Fila Esquinas, 35 km South of 
Palmar Norte, 8°45' x 83°20\ 1$, 7-8.i.l983 
(Janzen, Hallwachs). San Jose: Estacion Carrillo, 
Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, 700 m, 19, 
ix.1984 (Chacon, Chacon); 2cf, x.1984 (Chacon, 
Chacon); lcf, i.1985 (Chacon, Chacon); lcf, 
Hi. 1985 (Chacon, Chacon); lcf, 19; Fila 
Esquinas, 35 km South of Palmar Norte, 150 m, 
19, 7-8.M988 (Janzen, Hallwachs). Panama: 
Chiriqui: Volcan de Chiriqui, 60-90 m, 19 
(Champion); Lino, 19; Oja de Agua, 1600 m, 
19 (Herbulot); Environs de Estacion Clara, lcf 
(Herbulot); 15 km Norte Oeste de El Hato del 
Volcan, 1400 m, 1$ (Herbulot). Canal Zone: 
Barro Colorado Island, 29- Venezuela: Aragua: 
Rancho Grande, 19, 28.vi-18.vii.1974 (Watson); 
lCf, 12.vii-16.viii.1976 (Watson). Bolivar: 88 km 
South El Dorado, Estado Bolivar, 150 m, lcf, 
26-28. vi. 1984 (Covell). Peru: Puno: La Oroya, 
Rio Inambari, 940 m, lcf, dry season, ix.04 
(Ockenden); 19, wet season, x.1904 (Ock- 
enden); lcf [holotype of semiviridis] wet season, 
hi. 05 (Ockenden); Carabaya, Rio Huacamayo, 
940 m, lcf, dry season, vi.04 (Ockenden). 



69 



Bolivia: Santa Cruz: East Bolivia: Buenavista, 
19, vii-x.1906 (Steinbach); Provincia del Sara, 
450 m, 19, xi.1909 (Steinbach). 

Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, HERB, INBio, 

USNM. 

Oospila stagonata (Felder and Rogenhofer) 
comb.n. 

(Figs 73, 144, 198) 

Racheospila stagonata Felder and Rogenhofer, 
1875: pi. 127, fig 25. Holotype cf , in BMNH. 
Type locality: COLOMBIA: Bogota. Label 
data: Lindig 1804; Type; 144; Novara CXXVII 
f25 Racheospila stagonata Bogota cf ; Progon- 
odes stagonata Feld.; Rothschild Bequest 
B[ritish] Mfuseum] 1939-1; Geometridae geni- 
talia slide No. 12932 cf. 

Progonodes stagonata (Felder & Rogenhofer); 
Warren, 1897: 430; Prout, 1912: 135; 1932: 60. 

Racheospila arycanda Druce, 1892: 89 Holotype 
Cf , in BMNH. Type locality: COSTA RICA. 
Label data: Type; R[iver] Sucio, Costa Rica, 
H. Rogers; Godman-Salvin Collection] 
1903-4 B[iologia] C[entrali-] A[mericana]. 
Lep[idoptera-]Het[erocera]. Racheospila ary- 
canda Druce; Racheospila arycanda cf type 
Druce; Geometridae genitalia slide No. 15772 
Cf . [Examined.] Syn.n. 

Progonodes arycanda (Druce); Prout, 1912: 135. 

Progonodes stagonata arycanda (Druce); Prout, 
1933: 60. 

Cf, 9 (F'g- 73). Fore wing length 12-17 mm. 
Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and vertex 
brown. Interantennal fillet white. Thorax: dorsal 
surface pale green. Wings: pale green; speckled 
with white. Fore wing: costa pale brown; discal 
spot usually absent, occasionally small, brown. 
Hind wing: anterior and posterior discal spots 
small, white. Hind leg: proximal spurs absent; 
brush of long hair-like scales absent. Abdomen: 
basal crests dark brown, distal crests paler; 
remainder of dorsal surface cream; male lacking 
brushes of long hair-scales on sternum A2; ellip- 
tical sclerite absent from intersegmental mem- 
brane of sterna A2 and A3 of male; sternum A8 
strongly sclerotized in male, bilobed. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 144). Uncus short. Socii 
large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. Valva: 
short, narrow; costa with small subapical projec- 
tion; ampulla absent; sacculus not extended. 
Anellar complex: completely surrounding aedea- 
gus. Vinculum: ventral plate emarginated. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus: vesica without cornutus. 

Genitalia 9 ( Fi g- I 98 )- Ostium: sterigma 



70 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



absent. Segment A8 enlarged and strongly scle- 
rotized. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae and cor- 
pus bursae form large, weakly sclerotized 
complex with some striations, antrum absent; 
signum small. Anterior apophyses absent. 

Diagnosis. Oospila stagonata can be distin- 
guished from holochroa and immaculata by the 
presence of white speckling on its wings (com- 
pare Figs 34, 61 and 73). The wings of stagonata 
have a more mottled appearance than they do in 
lactecincta, sporadata, athena and nivetacta, and 
they lack the solid green and white patches 
(compare PI. 1: 9 and 21, Figs 33, 35, 36, 73 and 
74). The female genitalia of stagonata can be 
recognised by the enlargement and strong sclero- 
tization of sternum A8 (Fig. 198). 

Distribution. Specimens were examined from 
Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Cartago: 
Orosi, 1200 m, 2$ (Fasst). Limon: Rio Sucio, 1$ 
[holotype of arycanda] (Rogers). Colombia: Cun- 
dinamarca: Bogota, Id" [holotype of stagonata] 
(Lindig), 1$. Ecuador: Ita[i], Id (Buckley). 
Venezuela: Bolivar: Carret Caicara, San Juan de 
Manapiare km 170, 300 m, 1$, 4-9. iv. 1977 (Bor- 
don); Carret Bramor Delicias, 1800 m, 1?, 
16-17. vii. 1980. Ecuador: Pichincha: Tinlandia, 
17 km SE Santo Domingo de los Colorados, 900 
m, 1$, 16.x. 1988 (Miller). 
Depositories: AMNH, BMNH, UCVM. 

Oospila nivetacta (Warren) comb.n. 
(PI. 1:21, Figs 74, 145, 199) 

Racheolopha nivetacta Warren, 1906: 425. Holo- 
type d, in USNM. Type locality: FRENCH 
GUIANA. Label data: French Guiana: 
Maroni R[iver], S[ain]t Jean, iv. 1904 (Sch 
Colombial); Type No. 9199 U.S.N.M. [Exam- 
ined.] 

Progonodes nivetacta (Warren); Prout, 1912: 
135; 1932: 60. 

d , $ (PI. 1: 21, Fig. 74). Fore wing length 10-16 
mm. Antenna of female bipectinate. Frons and 
vertex brown. Inter antennal fillet white. Thorax: 
dorsal surface dark green. Wings: mainly white, 
with dark green speckling concentrated at distal 
areas leaving central white patch. Fore wing: 
costa dark brown; discal spot large, brown. Hind 
wing: discal spot brown. Hind leg: proximal 
spurs absent; brush of long hair-like scales 
absent. Abdomen: basal crests dark brown, dis- 
tal crests paler; remainder of dorsal surface 
green; male lacking brushes of long hair-scales 



on sternum A2; elliptical sclerite absent from 
intersegmental membrane of sterna A2 and A3 
of male; sternum A8 of male strongly sclerotized 
in male, narrowing posteriorly; emarginated. 

Genitalia cf (Fig. 145). Uncus not extended. 
Socii large. Gnathos: not fused, not reduced. 
Valva: deeply cleft; ampulla absent; sacculus 
extended into long, pointed process. Anellar 
complex: completely surrounding aedeagus. Vin- 
culum: ventral plate broad, emarginated. Core- 
mata absent. Aedeagus narrow; vesica with small 
cornutus. 

Genitalia $> (Fig. 199). Ostium: sterigma 
absent. Bursa copulatrix: ductus bursae short, 
strongly sclerotized, not striated; antrum indis- 
tinct; corpus bursae large; signum small. Ante- 
rior apophyses short. 

Diagnosis. Oospila nivetacta can be distin- 
guished from other species of Oospila with green 
and white speckled wing markings by the dark 
brown colour of the costa, and the prominence of 
the brown discal spots (compare PI. 1: 9 and 21, 
Figs 33, 35, 36, 73 and 74). The male genitalia of 
nivetacta can be recognised by the shape of the 
valva (Fig. 145). 

Distribution. This species has been collected 
in French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela and Bra- 
zil. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Guyane: 
St. Jean du Maroni, Id" [holotype]; Id" (Le 
Moult). Guyana: Mazaruni-Potaro: Rio Potaro, 
Id, i.1908 (Klages); 1$. Potaro, Id", ii-1908 
(Klages). Tumatumari, Id, xii.1907 (Klages). 
Venezuela: El Boninche res, Forestal Imataca, 
200 m, 2d, 6-13.xii.74. Bolivar: El Horniguero 
Meseta de Nuria, 500 m, Id, 13-17.xii.74. Bra- 
zil: Amazonas: Upper Amazonas: Fonte Boa, 
2d, v.1906 (Klages); Id, vii. 07; Sao Paulo de 
Olivenca: Id, i. 1932 (Wucherpfennig); Id, 
vi-vii.1933 (Moss); 1$, vii. 1934 (Waehner); 
Nova Olinda, Rio Purus, Id, v. 1922 (Klages). 
Amapa: Para, 2d (Moss). 

Depositories: BMNH, CMNH, UCVM. 



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Abhandlungen hrsg. von der Senckenbergischen Naturfor- 
schenden Gesellschaft. Frankfurt a. M. 16: 69-360. 



Pitkin L.M. 1993. Neotropical Emerald moths of the genus 

Nemoria and its relatives with particular reference to the 

species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, 

Geometrinae). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 

(Entomology) 62: 39-159, 1 col. pi. 
Prout, L.B. 1910. Lepidoptera Heterocera Fam. Geometridae 

Subfam. Brephinae. In Wytsman, P. (ed). Genera Insec- 

torum. 103: 1-16. 
1912. Lepidoptera Heterocera fam. Geometridae subfam 

Hemitheinae. In Wytsman, P. (ed). Genera Insectorum. 129: 

1-274. 
1916. New Neotropical Geometridae. Novitates Zoologi- 

cae 23: 151-190. 
1918a. New Geometridae in the Joicey Collection. Annals 

and Magazine of Natural History (8)20: 108-128. 
1918b. New Species and forms of Geometridae. Novitates 

Zoologicae 25: 76-89. 

1932-1938. The American Geometridae. In Seitz, A., 

(ed.). The Macrolepidoptera of the WorldS: 1-149, pis 1-13, 
15, 17. 

Schaus, W. 1897. New species of Geometridae from Tropical 

America. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 5: 

161-166. 
1901. New species of Geometridae from tropical America. 

Part II. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 

27: 241-276. 
1912a. New Species of Heterocera from Costa Rica - XV. 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8)9: 423-433. 

1912b. New species of Heterocera from Costa Rica - 

XVII. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8)10: 
286-311. 

1913. New species of Heterocera from Costa Rica - XXI. 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8)11: 342-357. 

Scoble, M.J. 1992. The Lepidoptera: form, function and diver- 
sity, xi, 404 pp. Oxford. 

Stoll, C. [1787-1790]. De uitlandsche Kapellen (Aanhangsel) 
[i]-viii, [1 J-184, pis 1-42. 

Thierry-Mieg, P. 1916. Descriptions dc Lepidopteres nou- 
veaux. Miscellanea Enlomologica 23: 41-52. 

Verloren, H. 1837. Catalogus systematica ad Cramerum. Aca- 
demiae typographum. 

Walker, F. 1861. List of the specimens of Lepidopterous insects 
in the collection of the British Museum 22: 499-755. London. 

1866. List of the specimens of Lepidopterous insects in the 

collection of the British Museum 35: 1535-2040. London. 

Warren, W. 1897. New genera and species of Thyndidae, 
Epiplemidae, and Geometridae, from South and Central 
America and the West Indies, in the Tring Museum. Novi- 
tates Zoologicae 4: 408-507. 

1900. New genera and species of American Drepanulidae, 

Thyrididae, Epiplemidae and Geometridae . Novitates Zoo- 
logicae 7: 117-225. 

1901. New American Moths. Novitates Zoologicae 8: 

435-492. 

1904a. New American Thyrididae, Uraniidae, and 

Geometridae. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 1-173. 

1904b. New American Thyrididae, Uraniidae, and 

Geometridae. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 493-582. 

1905. New American Thyrididae, Uraniidae and 

Geometridae. Novitates Zoologicae 12: 307-379. 

1906. Descriptions of new genera and species of South 

American Geometrid Moths. Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum 30: 399-557. 

1907. American Thyrididae, Uranidae and Geometridae 

in the Tring Museum. Novitates Zoologicae 14: 187-323. 

1909. New American Uraniidae and Geometridae. Novi- 
tates Zoologicae 16: 69-109. 



72 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



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Figs 1-7 Oospila species. 1, O. flavilimes; 2, O. decorata; 3, nigripunctata; 4, O. permagna; 5, O. pallidaria; 6, 
O. subaurea; 7, 0. acymanta. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



73 





Figs 8-14 Oospila species. 8, O. quinquemaculata; 9, O. continuata; 10, O. excrescens; 11, O. florepicta; 12, O. 
semispurcata; 13, O. rhodophragma; 14, O. granulata. 



74 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 





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16 




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18 







Figs 15-22 Oospila species. 15, O. thalassina; 16, O. lacteguttata; 17, O. asmura; 18, O. circumsessa; 19, O. 
rosipara; 20, O. delphinata; 21, 0. Camilla; 22, O. astigma. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



75 




27 



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26 



28 




29 

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30 



Figs 23-30 Oospila species. 23, O. leucostigma; 24, O. delacruzi; 25, O. albipunctulata; 26, 0. rufilimes; 27, 0. 
arpata; 28, 0. fimbripedata; 29, 0. zamaradaria; 30, O. miccularia. 



76 



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lactecincta; 36, 0. sporadata; 37, 0. includaria; 38, 0. leucothalera. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 77 



39 40 




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Figs 39-46 Oospila species. 39, O. albicoma albicoma; 40, O. albicoma nasuta; 41, O. concinna; 42, O. 
dicraspeda; 43, 0. ciliaria; 44, O. trilunaria; 45, 0. carnelunata; 46, 0. altonaria. 



78 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 




Figs 47-54 Oospila species. 47, O. confluaria; 48, O. longipalpis; 49, O. sellifera; 50, O. lilacina; 51, O. violacea; 
52, O. callicula; 53, O. obeliscata; 54, O. marginata. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



79 



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atroviridis; 60, 0. congener; 61, 0. immaculata; 62, O. rubescens. 



80 



M.A. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



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lunicincta; 68, 0. pellucida; 69, 0. ruptimacula; 70, 0. venezuelata. 



REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



81 



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73 




Figs 71-74 Oospila species. 71, O. confundaria; 72, O. depressa; 73, O. stagonata; 74, O. nivetacta. 



82 



MA. COOK AND M.J. SCOBLE 



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REVISION OF GENUS OOSPILA WARREN 



83 



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sternum A3 — 

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Fig. 77 Pregenital abdomen of O. carnelunata d" . 



Figs 78-199 on following pages. 78-145, male genitalia and sternum A8 of Oospila species; 146-199, female 
genitalia of Oospila species. 



84 



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INDEX 



Synonyms are in italics 



acymanta 12 
albicoma 38 
albicoma albicoma 38 
albicoma matura 40 
albicoma nasuta 40 
albipunctulata 27 
aliphera 63 
altonaria 45 
ambusta 64 
arpata 28 
arycanda 69 
asmura 19 
astigma 24 
athena 33 
atopochlora 54 
atroviridis 56 

basiplaga 36 
belisama 64 

callicula 49 
callicula orchardae 49 
callicula stenobathra 49 
Camilla 24 
carnelunata 44 
cayennensis 15 
ciliaria 43 
circumdata 13 
circumdata striolata 13 
circumsessa 21 
araimsign.it. i 59 
coerulea 66 
coerulea aphenges 66 
concinna 40 
confluaria 46 
confundaria 66 
congener 57 
congener procellosa 57 
continuata 14 
conversa 22 
curvimargo 35 

decoloraria 60 
decorata 9 
delacruzi 26 
delicatescens 34 
deliciosa 38 
delphinata 23 
depressa 68 
derasa 66 



dicraspeda 42 
dolens 56 

ecuadorata 32 
eminens 40 
euchlora 32 
excrescens 15 
extensata 27 

fenestrata 18 
fimbripedata 29 
flavicincta 21 
flavilimes 9 
florepicta 15 
fractimacula 55 
fumidimargo 19 

granulata 17 

heteromorpha 23 
holochroa 34 
hyalina 55 

imniaail.il. i 58 
imula 31 
includaria 36 
invasata 64 

jaspidata 60 

lactecincta 35 
lacteguttata 18 
latimargo 19 
leucostigma 25 
leucothalera 37 
lilacina 48 
longipalpis 47 
longiplaga 61 
lunicincta 62 

magnifica 36 
marginata (Schaus) 11 
marginata Warren 51 
marginata sympathes 5 1 
mesocraspeda 45 
miccularia 31 
microspila 21 
minorata 38 
mionophragma 28 
mionophragma subruta 28 



multiplagiata 36 
nivetacta 70 
nigripunctata 10 

obeliscata 50 
obsolescens 53 

pallida 43 
pallidaria 11 
partita 64 
pellucida 62 
peralta 18 
permagna 11 
plurimaculata 22 
plurimaculata symmicta 23 
procellosa 57 

quinquemaculata 13 

restricta 26 
rhodophragma 17 
rosipara 21 
rubescens 58 
rufilimes 27 
rufiplaga 51 
ruptimacula 63 
ruptimacula curtimacula 63 

sarptaria 31 
sarplaria ruboris 32 
sellifera 47 
semialbaria 43 
semicaudata 28 
semispurcata 16 
semiviridis 68 
sesquiplaga 66 
similiplaga 28 
spor.id.it. i 35 
stagonata 69 
subaurca 12 

thalassina 18 
tricamerata 52 
trilunaria 44 

venezuclata 64 
venezuelata cellata 64 
violacea 49 

zamaradaria 30 



Bulletin of The Natural History Museum 
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Earlier Entomology Bulletins are still in print. The following can be ordered from Intercept (address on inside 
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Volume 57 

No. 1 A survey of the Ophioninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of tropical Mesoamerica with 
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No. 1 The songs of the western European bush-crickets of the genus Platycleis in relation to their 
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1990. Pp. 37-115. 

No. 2 The green lacewings of the world: a generic review (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). S.J. Brooks & 
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1991. Pp. 1-204. 

No. 2 Sattleria: a European genus of brachypterous alpine moths (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). L.M. 
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Volume 61 

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Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). M. Kruger & M.J. Scoble. 1992. Pp. 77-148. 

Volume 62 

No. 1 Caloptilia leaf-miner moths (Gracillariidae) of South-East Asia. Decheng Yuan and Gaden S. 

Robinson. 1993. Pp. 1-37. 
No. 2 Neotropical Emerald moths of the genera Nemoria, Lissochlora and Chavarriella, with particular 

reference to the species of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae). Linda M. 

Pitkin. 1993. Pp. 39-159. 

Volume 63 

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No. 2 A taxonomic review of the common green lacewing genus Chrysoperla (Neuroptera: 
Chrysopidae). S.J. Brooks. Pp. 137-210. 



CONTENTS 



Revision of the neotropical genus Oospila Warren (Lepidoptera: 
Geometridae) 

MA. Cook and M.J. Scoble 



ENTOMOLOGY SERIES 

Vol.64, No. 1, June 1995